Religions; the Meaning of an Illuminated Way of Life?

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Part 3: Mani, The Messenger of Light.

Prologue!

It will be another (not so important) announcement to my running vacuous for the next two weeks! I know you will miss me (please, please miss me!!) That’s because we dare to take a vacation in Greece (Skiathos). Of course, I can’t be silent, and I’ll get on your nerves now and then, and it might be helpful to do something different.
Now, I share the last part of my trilogy on Dualism. And hope, despite this long part, you will find joy by reading it.

In fact, Manicheism is a successor of Zoroastrianism, but similar to Cathars, its beliefs based on the Divine.
Manichaeism is a combination of religions with its own theology. Manichean doctrine is far more dualistic than Zoroastrianism. Manicheans believe that the physical world and physical matter is evil, a work of the evil spirit.

Manichaeism considered Zoroaster to be a figure (along with the Buddha and Jesus) in a line of prophets of which Mani (216–276) was the culmination. Zoroaster’s ethical dualism is—to an extent—incorporated in Mani’s doctrine, which viewed the world as being locked in an epic battle between opposing forces of good and evil. Manicheanism also incorporated other elements of Zoroastrian tradition, particularly the names of supernatural beings; however, many of these other Zoroastrian elements are either not part of Zoroaster’s own teachings or are used quite differently from how they are used in Zoroastrianism.

Academics also note that much of what is known about Manichaeism comes from later 10th- and 11th-century Muslim historians like Al-Biruni and especially ibn al-Nadim (and his Fihrist), who “ascribed to Mani the claim to be the Seal of the Prophets.” However, given the Islamic milieu of Arabia and Persia at the time, it stands to reason that Manichaeans would regularly assert in their evangelism that Mani, not Muhammad, was the “Seal of the Prophets”. In reality, for Mani the metaphorical expression “Seal of Prophets” is not a reference to his finality in a long succession of prophets, as it is in Islam, but, rather to his followers, who testify or attest his message, as a seal does.

Another source of Mani’s scriptures was original Aramaic writings relating to the Book of Enoch literature (see the Book of Enoch and the Second Book of Enoch), as well as an otherwise unknown section of the Book of Enoch called The Book of Giants. This book was quoted directly, and expanded on by Mani, becoming one of the original six Syriac writings of the Manichaean Church. Besides brief references by non-Manichaean authors through the centuries, no sources of The Book of Giants (which is actually part six of the Book of Enoch) were available until the 20th century.

Not to make it too long, it is fascinating to know how impressive was the idea of Dualism in religious history.

One can be enjoyed if interested in this, just have a look at here

And before finishing it, let’s have some great description from my favourite book: The Master Game, by my dear friends and writers: Graham Hancock & Robert Bauval.

Around AD 240, Mani had begun his preaching mission. His preaching but was distinctly not Zoroastrianism. Therefore he has been forced to exile. Of course, in his exile to India, Mani had got the chance to preach his idea and had great success to have followers there. And after Ardeshir, the first king of the Sasanian dynasty, a convinced Zoroastrian died, Mani came back to Persian and got permission from king Shahpur the first, to continue preaching. The king protected Mani to do what he wished throughout the Persian Empire. Thereafter, Manichaeism won converts at a phenomenal rate causing intense resentment and jealousy amongst the Zoroastrian priesthood. Therefore, they persuaded the king to exile Mani for a second time.

Anyway, after back and forth with the kings’ changing, king Hormuzd, despite his faith to Zoroastrianism, tolerated Mani and his followers. But it doesn’t last so long that the officers arrested him at Gundeshapur in southwestern Persia. He was then subjected to four days of inquisition-style by the Magi (Zoroastrian priests) and declared to be “Zandic” = a heresy. A month of imprisonment in heavy chains, followed after which he was flayed alive and then decapitated. His head was impaled on the city gate, from which his skin, stuffed with straw, was also suspended; what remained of his body was thrown to the dogs.

No doubt, the level of brutality in his execution was commensurate with the level of threat that Magi saw in Mani’s new religion, which was everywhere overtaking them. And just as the case with the destruction of Catharism by the Roman Catholic Church, a thousand years later, it was also a determined attempt made by the Zoroastrians to wipe out Manicheism completely. How horrible it seems, it is a sad old story, which we can find permanently in our history!

This might not be known as the other sects or way of beliefs.

The Manichaeans had not become so famous as the Zoroastrian religion. It might because the latter had aimed to destroy its serious enemy. And after that, when the Arabs came, with their destructive swords, remained no chance for the Manichaeans to go any further.

Let’s have some declarations in detail: (Hopefully, it’s not becoming boring!)

Mani, Messenger of Light

It’s known as Manicheism after its founder Mani. It’s younger than some of the Christian Gnostic movements but a century older than the Messalians. It too was viciously persecuted by the Church as heresy, rather than as a pagan religion.

There’s a dispute amongst scholars as to whether Manicheism was Christian in any meaningful sense at all. Certainly, it was much less Christian than the religion of Bogomils and the Cathars, and that, as I have explained before, accurately can’t be described as Christianity. It said that Mani claimed to be the Apostle of Christ, though there is another claim which he had uttered himself as the Apostle of God. He meant that he was an emissary or messenger, and he placed himself as the successor to Christ at the end of a line of earlier, non-Christian apostles.

Obviously, the Church saw this as heresy. It involved Chris but clearly devalued the unique quality of his mission by putting him on a par with the founders of well-known pagan religions.
One of Mani’s surviving statements on the matter in his Book of the King
, Shapur (circa AD 250) makes this completely clear.

From age to age, the Apostles of God did not cease to bring here the wisdom and works of the spirit. Thus in one age, their coming was into the countries of India, through the Apostle, that was the Buddha. In another age, into the land of Persia, through Zoroaster. Into another, the land of the West, through Jesus. After that, into this last age, this revelation came down, and this prophethood arrived through me, Mani, the Apostle of the true God, into the land of Bable.

[…] More directly, it’s known that Mani was reared amongst an obscure sect of Jewish Christians called the Elchasaitans (considered to have been Gnostics and linked by some scholars with the Essens of Dead Sea Scrolls fame). They were mystics and visionaries with strict purity laws and respective rituals that Mani rebelled against. But through them, he was exposed to an additional vital influence on his thinking – the teachings of the Christian Gnostics. Although later to be persecuted as heresy, these teachings were still in free circulation in the first half of the third century and are generally agreed to have greatly impacted the construction of Mani’s own distinctively Gnostic religion.[…]

…guarded by the might of the Light-angels the exceedingly strong powers, who had a command from Jesus the Splendour for my safekeeping… They nourished me with visions and signs which they made known to me, slight and quite brief, as far as I was able, for, sometimes like a flash of lightning, he came.

Though, Manichaeism is very similar to Catharism and Bogomilism, as far as the divine concerns. And there are two Gods: The one of the Light and the other:

It is the Prince of Darkness who spoke with Moses, the jews, and their priests. Thus, the Christians, the Jews (the Muslims), and the Pagans are involved in the same error when they worship this god. For he led them astray in the lusts that he thought them, since he was not the God of Truth.

Actually, if we take a deep look to the world and these all happening today, it sounds mysteriously true! The question that remains in my mind is: what went wrong after thousands of years of human’s cultural progress, it’s still so much misery and injustice in the world. It seems that the right way was there, and we didn’t catch it up! I can only hope if there’d be light at the end of this long and dark tunnel.

Have a lovely weekend friends. 🧡🧡🙏🤗

Jean-François Champollion under the spell of Ramses II of Turin!

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As I noticed right now, there is something strange that happened to my WordPress site. I posted this some minutes ago but couldn’t see it, and I found it dated 2 June! 😮 As I still know, today is June 10th. The only way to get back to the future, I thought I must reblog it before I’d drown in the past… 😜🤦‍♂️

lampmagician

Ramses II, or the Great; ‘Rais the one who bore him’ or ‘born of Ra’, (Rhaméssēs),c.1303 BC– July or August 1213; reigned 1279–1213 BC, was the thirdpharaohof theNineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of theNew Kingdom, itself the most powerful period ofAncient Egypt.His successors and later Egyptians called him the “Great Ancestor”. He is known asOzymandiasin Greek sources (Koinē Greek:Οσυμανδύας,romanized:Osymandýas),from the first part of Ramesses’sregnal name,UsermaatreSetepenre, “TheMaatofRais powerful, Chosen of Ra”. More on Wikipedia

He was undoubtedly the greatest pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty – and one of the most important leaders of ancient Egypt. The ostentatious pharaoh is best remembered for his exploits at the Battle of Kadesh, his…

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A Short and Not so Important Announcement!

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I’m absent this weekend! It happened spontaneously by a decision, to get a ride to northern Germany to meet friends after so long distance in the time of Corona.

I’ve just thought it might be for interest of few friends 😉

Thank you for being there and wish you all a great weekend 💞😊❤️😘🙏

Jean-François Champollion under the spell of Ramses II of Turin!

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Ramses II, or the Great; ‘Ra is the one who bore him’ or ‘born of Ra’, (Rhaméssēs), c. 1303 BC – July or August 1213; reigned 1279–1213 BC, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.  He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom, itself the most powerful period of Ancient Egypt. His successors and later Egyptians called him the “Great Ancestor”. He is known as Ozymandias in Greek sources (Koinē Greek: Οσυμανδύας, romanized: Osymandýas), from the first part of Ramesses’s regnal nameUsermaatre Setepenre, “The Maat of Ra is powerful, Chosen of Ra”. More on Wikipedia

He was undoubtedly the greatest pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty – and one of the most important leaders of ancient Egypt. The ostentatious pharaoh is best remembered for his exploits at the Battle of Kadesh, his architectural legacy, and for bringing Egypt into its golden age. Here

Here again, is another fascinating article by Marie Grillot, and this time, about this giant statue of the great pharaoh, Ramses II, how it’s been found and restored. It is magical, a spell! 😊💖🙏

Jean-François Champollion sous le charme du Ramsès II de Turin !

via https://egyptophile.blogspot.com/

Statue of Ramses II – Granodiorite – New Kingdom
Discovered at Karnak in 1818 by Jean-Jacques Rifaud on behalf of Bernardino Drovetti Museo Egizio in Turin – C 1380

This magnificent statue of Ramses II is undoubtedly one of the most emblematic pieces of the Egyptian Museum in Turin. With a height approaching 2 m, carved in a block of black diorite (or black granite, or granodiorite, or polished basanite according to the descriptions), of perfect execution, it represents the pharaoh seated on his throne, bearing the emblem power, face and attitude-filled with serenity. This work of art of absolute perfection can only arouse unconditional admiration.

Inscription engraved by J.-J. Rifaud on the right side of the statue of Ramses II – Granodiorite – New Kingdomwhich he discovered in Karnak in 1818 on behalf of Bernardino Drovetti – Museo Egizio de Turin – C 1380

As evidenced by the inscription engraved on the right side of the throne: “Dt par Jj – Rifaud in the service of Mr Drovetti in Thebes SR (?) 1818”, it was discovered by the Marseillais Jean-Jacques Rifaud in 1818, then that he was starting excavations at Karnak on behalf of Bernardino Drovetti – French consul and… Italian antique dealer – who had hired him two years earlier.

The head of Ramses II appears in n ° 3 in “Granite statues, discovered by Jean-Jacques Rifaud, in his excavations in Thebes, in the eastern part of the great temple of Karnak”. Lithograph by Könitzer after the original drawing by Mr. Rifaud

It seems difficult to pinpoint the exact location of the find. Volume II of “Porter & Moss”, which presents it as follows: “Ramesses II, seated, with statuettes of Queen Nefertari on left and of Prince Amenirkhopshef on right, granite, in Turin Mus. 1380” refers us to a chapter of the ‘work by Jean-Jacques Rifaud “Table of Egypt, Nubia and surrounding places, or Itinerary for the use of travellers who visit these regions”. It “would” be referenced in Karnak’s discoveries “From Rifaud excavations. Presumably from here” in enumeration 9: “Three shrines, square pillars, statues, caryatids, the number of black granite statues, a white marble monolith -, a pink granite sacrificial altar, forty-two columns in one direction, and eight in another part: these are the results of the excavations undertaken from the surrounding wall to the eastern gate of the palace… “

Cracks still visible today testify to the condition
in which the statue of Ramses II was found – photo Marie Grillot

Broken discovery: “it was transported to Turin in shapeless fragments”. And also, it seems, according to some sources, that he had to suffer from a fire when he arrived in Italy.

At the start of summer 1824, Jean-François Champollion was at the Turin museum where he came to discover and write the “descriptive and reasoned” catalogue of Egyptian treasures that His Majesty, the King of Sardinia, had just acquired: he proceeds; this is the first “Drovetti” collection.

On this pencil and watercolor drawing by Marco Nicolosino made around 1832,
we can recognize, at the back of the room, the statue of Ramses II

With thanks to his insistence and to the intervention of the knight “Jules Cordero di San Quintino”, the first curator of the Museum, that the statue was able to be reconstituted. Champollion relates the facts thus: “I finally got the pieces of the statue assembled… Nothing is missing.” Throughout his stay, he never ceased to consider: “the beauty and the admirable perfection of this colossal figure” and admits: “For six whole months every day I see him and always believe to see him for the first time … In short, I’m in love with it. “

Why not, therefore, let the man in love and passionate describe it?

Statue of Ramses II – Granodiorite – New Kingdom
Discovered at Karnak in 1818
by Jean-Jacques Rifaud on behalf of Bernardino Drovetti – Museo Egizio de Turin – C 1380

“The king is represented seated on a throne in military dress. The head of the statue of Ramses the Great wears the royal helmet, armour which, according to the green colour that is applied to him in the painted bas-reliefs, was to be in bronze adorned with more precious metals: kinds of nails or small relief discs, similar to the figurative character which, in hieroglyphic texts, expresses the idea of the sun, covering the entire surface of the helmet, except a sort of rim or rather of a visor which protrudes over the entire contour of the forehead; above this visor rises the royal badge, the urœus, the body of which first forms several coils, and then extends in a straight line to the highest part of the helmet.

The face of this statue, as had been worked like all the other parts with extreme care, is of perfection that I did not expect to find in any works of Egyptian ancient style. The expression is both sweet and proud, and with a very brief examination, it is enough to convince that this is a true portrait. The eyes, of medium size, are less prominent than those of most other statues; the eyebrows are strongly marked; the external angle of the eyes is not exaggerated as usual; the nose is long and aquiline, and the mouth small, although the lips are always a little strong. Full cheeks and a rounded chin give the oval face a noticeable elegance and grace. The ears, of excellent shape, but the upper extremity of which always protrudes beyond the line of the eye, an essential characteristic of any figure in true Egyptian style, are pierced as if to hang some precious ornament thereon. Ramses the Great is beardless … A rich necklace, with six divisions ending in a row of dangling pearls, covers the Pharaoh’s chest:

The artist represented him dressed in a loose and long tunic with wide sleeves, striped and pleated, and all the openings, as well as the bottom, are embroidered and adorned with fringes, and this is undoubtedly this famous Egyptian tunic known as ‘calasiris’. The right sleeve, raised above the elbow, gives passage to the arm which, folded against the chest, supports this sceptre in the form of a hook, as often placed in the hand of kings as in that of certain deities; the left arm, extended along the side and resting on the thigh, is covered almost entirely by the sleeve of the tunic, the fringes of which descend to the wrist; the closed hand holds a cylindrical body, quite like a roll of papyrus depressed by the effort of the fingers which grip it. The shoes imitating as sandals, down to the smallest details, in palm leaves, and finely woven, which we still find in the hypogeums, are attached to the feet of the statue that are moreover of a very beautiful shape. And in a fair proportion. The execution of the hands leaves nothing to be desired in these same respects. I will also point out that the artist, as if to express that the Pharaoh’s feet rest on a mat, has traced below and in a single line, on the surface of the footstool of the throne, long leaves of plants similar to those of certain reeds.

Statue of Ramses II: on the right is a representation of Amonherkhepshef, one of his sons, and, on the left, a representation of his wife Nefertari “the beloved of the Theban goddess Mut”

Finally, to the right and left of the legs of the statue, are two full-relief figures leaning against the front of the throne and carved in its mass: one represents a queen adorned with the insignia of Athyr, and the other a young man costumed as the god Horus and wearing the emblem of Victory; two columns of hieroglyphics, engraved near this last statuette, teach us that the colossus was dedicated by the son of the king whom he loves… The legend which accompanies the statuette of woman consists only of these words: His royal and powerful wife who loves him; it undoubtedly relates to the queen, wife of Ramses and mother of Amonh…. (This proper name ends with two characters whose sound is still unknown to me, he specifies in a note): these two figures, one foot high, and wearing small sandals like the colossus, are of a very fine and very careful work.

The cartridges of Ramses II appear in particular

on his right and left forearms and on his belt – photo Marie Grillot

The proper name Ramses, engraved on the belt of the great statue, the particular first name of Ramses VI or the Great, and his proper name, carved, one on the right forearm, the other on the front- left arm, would prove sufficiently that this beautiful statue represents the least ancient, but the most famous of the Egyptian conquerors, all the same, a long inscription, starting from the clip of the belt and going down to the bottom of the tunic, would not tell us that this is indeed the image of the living and beneficent God, the Representative of Ammon, of Mars and the Sun in the high region, the king Re-Saté approved by Phré, the Director and the Guardian of Egypt: The Child of the Gods, The Son of the Sun, The Darling of Ammon: Ramses, The Eternal Awakener. “

Could Ramses II hope for a more wonderful description of his statue, studied, looked at, and interpreted with the greatest and most respectful attention?

As for Jean-François Champollion, it is certainly in order not to leave him totally and definitively that he will return to Paris with a: “good plaster of the entire bust of this statue” …

Marie Grillot

Sources:

Jean-François Champollion, Letters to M. le Duc de Blacas d’Aulps relating to the Royal Egyptian Museum in Turin , first

letter – historical monuments, Turin, July, 1824, Firmin Didot, 1824 (pp. 1-92).
Wikisourc
Table of Egypt, Nubia and surrounding places, or Itinerary for the use of travelers who visit these regions , Jean-Jacques Rifaud, Treuttel et Würtz (Paris), 1830

Topographical bibliography of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, reliefs, and paintings – II – Theban Temples ” by the late Bertha Porter and Rosalind LB Moss, Hon. D. Litt. (Oxon.), FSA. assisted by Ethel W. Burney, second edition revised and augmented, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1972

Art treasures of Museo Egizio, Eleni Vassilika, Allemandi & Co

Guide Museo Egizio, Franco Cosimo Panini editions

The Egyptian Museum Turin, Federico Garolla Editore

Another year passed, and the goal is more tangible

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End of the 90s at Baltic Sea

In fact, I do not adhere to the belief that the lost ones should be remembered once a year. As you might have noticed, I have mostly mentioned my brother’s name in my articles. But every year on this very day, I miss his closeness, his advice. Therefore, let me calm my heart and drop some words.

What is dead, broken, or achieving the ideal?

Sorry, I’d like to take help often from the Master of the psyche, Dr Jung:

http://AZ Quotes

It must be true. As we begin the second half of our life, and we carry the experiences from the last into the new, we can take a little time and think of the end or a new beginning.

As I remember, since I was eighteen and after our mother died, I thought that I couldn’t be sadder than that. My eyes were dried by shedding so many tears. But I was wrong!

Yes! I want to write another tribute to my beloved brother, Al. It is my fourteenth tribute, though I have such a feeling as it is still the first one.
It was 2006 when the killer tumour appeared in his genius brain, (he had got an epileptic attack), and then we’d been driven to the hospital with the ambulance. They wanted to keep him for a night to make an EEG test, and I walked all the way back home. It was Mars the fifth, and was heavily snowing. That’s why when I arrived home, I just looked like a snowman, and I haven’t even noticed it.

It had been a back and forth till he got surgery (I don’t want to get into the details.) After he came back home, he was very fit and happy and told me that he wanted to win cancer, as Lance Armstrong did, who had got cancer but won over it with doing sport with biking and winning many tournaments, amongst Tour de France, though with a little help from doping! Al’s dopping was only smoking!

He was the coolest one after brain surgery. 💖

Anyway, Al had put an aim with an exercise bike, which we’d bought, and he began to practice.
Every day, when I came home from work, (How I’d wish that I had the chance to have the possibility to leave the job and had more time with him, my beloved one.) I saw him biking and listening to the Beatles. We loved them since our childhood and had all the LPs from them. Once, he told me that he had discovered something as he listened to the Beatles: they had made so many songs that none is similar to the other, how fascinating! He said, and he was right.

We didn’t like Iranian music, except some rare traditional ones. From an early age, with the help of our older brother Soroosh, we got to know western culture and music and fell in love with it. Yes, we were Aliens in Iran and remained Aliens in Germany! It lasted only one year, and this very year was a good year. He was happy, therefore I was, and he was trying to back to his work: writing. But the killer tumour came back to finished its job. That’s another sad story, might be told later.

At Al’s funeral, I have chosen some songs (an unusual dead ceremony!) which Al loved most. Like Leonard Cohen once sang: We are ugly, but we have the music.

…And clenching your fist for the ones like us
Who are oppressed by the figures of beauty
You fixed yourself, you said: Well, never mind
We are ugly but we have the music…

And one with Bing Crosby and The Andrews Sisters, which Al’d always wish to say; Don’t Fence Me In.

And, I’ve had added a song from our most loving duet: Simon & Garfunkel. This describes his worldview (Weltanschauung), which shows with no doubt, A Most Peculiar Man .

The last one, I thought it must make fun, as he always marked: Happiness is all! I have just thought of Dean Martin‘s Sway, and that’s it!

Have you ever thought of sway into another world? Anyway, I thought that it is a wonderful idea to dance so far until to change the level! As Al always did believe in: Be happy and thanks for the music which has been given to us. Love and Light, as an adorable forever friend always said. 🙏🙏💖🤗

Senenmout and the little princess Neferourê

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Museum

Senenmut was an 18th Dynasty ancient Egyptian architect and government official. His name translates literally as “mother’s brother.” Wikipedia

Was he Queen Hatshepsut’s Secret Lover? Who knows. His first enters the historical record on a national level as the “Steward of the God’s Wife” (Hatshepsut)  and “Steward of the King’s Daughter” (Neferure). Some Egyptologists place Senenmut’s entry into royal service during the reign of Thutmose I, but it is far more likely that it occurred during either the reign of Thutmose II or while Hatshepsut was still regent and not pharaoh. After Hatshepsut was crowned pharaoh, Senenmut was given more prestigious titles and became high steward of the king. More here.

Only the interesting topic is how he holds the princess so protectively. Is she his child? Anyway, let’s go ahead with another fascinating description by brilliant Marie Grillot. 💖🙏💖

Senenmout et la petite princesse Neferourê

Via https://egyptophile.blogspot.com/

Cube statue of Senenmout and Neferourê – grey granite
discovered in the Hiding place of Karnak, by Georges Legrain, December 30, 1904
recorded in the Journal des Entrées of the Cairo Museum – JE 37438bis – CG 42114

Of the little princess, we only see the head. She is still a child, with full cheeks and curious eyes, open to the future. The ears are well-drawn, the eyes are large, the nose, small, has suffered. She brings the index finger of her right hand to her lips. Her skull: “is covered with a headband adorned with the uraeus and letting the princely braid escape to the left”. The lower part of the face, like the nose or the uraeus, was damaged, broken. The braid to the side and the index finger to the mouth: these are the two distinctive signs of childhood in ancient Egypt, and they are reminiscent of the young Harpocrates!

The child is safe, in confidence, protected in the lap of the other character who has his chin resting on the top of his skull, and we imagine that he encloses her with his protective arms. But of that, arms, body and legs, we see nothing because we are facing a cube statue or block statue. This means that it is: “cut from the compact mass of a cubic block, which schematically represents the attitude of a crouching man, his hands brought under his chin and placed on his knees, the whole being hidden under a coat.

Cube statue of Senenmout and Neferourê – grey granite

discovered in the Hiding place of Karnak, by Georges Legrain, December 30, 1904

recorded in the Journal des Entrées of the Cairo Museum – JE 37438bis – CG 42114

“This type of statuary made its appearance in the Middle Kingdom, but the squatting attitude is attested since the first dynasties.” And, in this case: “it is the introduction of the head of the pupil emerging from the mantle of the guardian, which is an innovation of the 18th Dynasty”. (Official catalogue Egyptian Museum of Cairo, Mohamed Saleh, Hourig Sourouzian)

The man, whose head and neck we only see, is young, handsome, serene. His expression is full of responsibility, focused on the importance of the role he must assume in having this little princess under his care. But beyond that, we feel tenderness, a deep and sincere attachment to the child, and most certainly, a certain pride.

He wears a mid-length wig: “with horizontal stripes on the forehead freeing the ears and thrown back on the shoulders. The smooth headband, which was below, goes under the wig and appears at the top of the cheeks, in front of the ears. ” The face is rather round, the eyes and eyebrows are “long, curvy and protruding” and nicely worked. The ears, like the full lips, are well defined. The nose was hammered. The neck looks powerful.

Cube statue of Senenmout and Neferourê – grey granite

discovered in the Hiding place of Karnak, by Georges Legrain, December 30, 1904

recorded in the Journal des Entrées of the Cairo Museum – JE 37438bis – CG 42114

As for the rest of the morphology of the two characters, it disappears, covered, enveloped by a garment on the front of which are traced hieroglyphic signs which have: “been largely hammered and restored”. Georges Legrain specifies that the horizontal text includes: “more than fourteen lines covering the front of the statue, from knees to tiptoes”.

We are facing Senenmout and Neferourê, bound in stone, for eternity …

Neferourê, whose name means “the beauty of the god Re”, is the daughter of the queen (who will become king) Hatshepsut and of Thutmose II. As Pierre Tallet explains to us: “Thutmose II had married Hatshepsut, according to a strong tradition of brother-sister marriage which particularly marks the beginnings of the XVIIIth dynasty … As part of this union, Hatshepsut gives birth to a daughter of name of Neferourê. “

Cube statue of Senenmout and Neferourê – grey granite
discovered in the Hiding place of Karnak, by Georges Legrain, December 30, 1904
recorded in the Journal des Entrées of the Cairo Museum – JE 37438bis – CG 42114

From the birth of the princess: “the faithful Ahmès Pen-Nekhbet and the former guardian of Hatshepsut, becomes ‘foster father’ of Neferourê”. It is later that this function will be entrusted to Senenmout. Senenmout, who was of modest origin, became, without doubt, one of the most famous personalities of the reign of Hatshepsut and this not only because he created the Djeser Djeserou – the “sublime of the sublime” – the magnificent temple of the queen which blooms in the rocky circus of Deir-el-Bahari!

The temple of Queen Hatshepsut – the Djeser Djeserou – designed by Senenmout,
flourishes in the rocky cirque of Deir el-Bahari (west bank of Louqsor)

In “Twelve queens of Egypt”, Pierre Tallet evokes it thus: “Senenmout, invested with the functions of intendant of the royal wife and tutor of the princess Neferrurê, obviously plays a very first role. has sometimes presented as the lover of the queen, which nothing can show, but it is undoubtedly a man of confidence who accompanied Hatshepsut most of his existence … “

He seems to have been: “promoted to the highest office to reach more than eighty offices or honorary titles, as the butler of Amun, governor of the queen or chancellor of the king of Lower Egypt”.

Cube statue of Senenmout and Neferourê – grey granitediscovered in the Hiding place of Karnak, by Georges Legrain, December 30, 1904recorded in the Journal des Entrées of the Cairo Museum – JE 37438bis – CG 42114 – photo of the museum

As to Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt, she gives us this analysis: “If he was a theologian, Senenmout did not forget that he embodied one of the most knowledgeable scientists of his time … Invested in all the functions of the kingdom, in Except the visible prerogatives of the sovereign, Senenmout never preceded his titles with the mention “scribe”, which is quite surprising for this priest of Maat. “

And yet, the “scribe” Senenmout would have, thus “created”, invented some of the hieroglyphics inscribed on his status; “signs that I made, according to the idea of my heart and by my own work,” he specifies. Thus, Étienne Drioton devoted a study to “Two cryptograms of Senenmout” reproduced precisely on this cube statue: “It is obvious that he composed them (these spellings) according to the current conventions of the cryptography of his period. Otherwise, they would have been perfectly unintelligible. In fact, by applying the principles recently brought to light from the enigmatic writing of the beginning of the New Kingdom, one can perfectly explain the figuration engraved on the right shoulder, like a monogram of the first name of Hatshepsut. ” Still according to Étienne Drioton, Senenmout “had devoted his ingenuity, of which, he was proud, to monogramming the names of his sovereign, a very Egyptian way of paying court to her”.

The cube statue of Senenmout and Neferourê – grey granite – JE 37438bis – CG 42114

presented in the General Catalog of Egyptian Antiquities in the Cairo Museum – n ° 42001-42138

“Statues and statuettes of kings and individuals” by Mr. Georges Legrain, Cairo, Printing office of the French Institute of Oriental Archeology, 1906

This grey granite statue, 1.30 m high, was found by Georges Legrain in the immense “Hiding place of Karnak”. The discovery took place precisely on December 30, 1904, “along the wall (west face), where the large Merenptah inscription is engraved”. The statue which was under the “embankments and rubble” was: “lying on the right flank, the head to the west, the base to the east”.

It was recorded in the Journal des Entrées of the Cairo Museum JE 37438 bis and referenced CG 42114. It is still exhibited there today.

It should be noted that, in a study published in BIFAO 76, Jocelyne Berlandini-Grenier identified seven other statues representing Senenmout and Neferourê. Among them, let us quote that very similar which is in Berlin, and that, very moving, just sketched “in the limestone of the djebel”, to Sheikh Abdel Gournah, in front of the TT 71, tomb of Senenmout: what message, what links thus affirmed, posted, for eternity!

Marie Grillot

Sources:

General catalog of Egyptian antiquities in the Cairo museum – n ° 42001-42138 – Statues and statuettes of kings and individuals , by Mr. Georges Legrain, Cairo, Imprimerie de la Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 1906
Karnak Hideout Base , IFAO
Official catalog – Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Mohamed Saleh, Hourig Sourouzian, Verlag Philippe von Zabern, 1997
Treasures of Egypt – The Wonders of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Francesco Tiradritti
The treasures of ancient Egypt at the Cairo museum, National Geographic
12 queens of Egypt who changed history, Pierre Tallet, Pygmalion, 2013
“ Deux cryptogrammes de Senenmout ”, by Étienne Drioton, ASAE 38, 1938, p. 231-246
“ Senenmout, royal stolist, on a cube-statue with Néferourê ”, Berelandini-Grenier (Jocelyne), BIFAO 76 (1976), p. 111-132
Statue of Senenmout , Ägyptisches Museum Berlin – Nr. ÄM 2296
Lessons on Egyptian Art , Jean Capart, 1920, Liège, Impr. H. Vaillant-Carmanne

Thoughts on Thought…

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By SearchingTheMeaningOfLife

Le Penseur in the garden of the Rodin Museum

Prologue

I had to think about the Food for thought right now, by our wise friend Jack Eason and his complaints about missing certain (or any) feedback! Though I share his posts on Facebook, and he doesn’t care!!

We have almost got used to seeing that, on WP, there’s too much feedback or too little! Anyway, I hope Jack does not take it into his heart. On the Web, it is like a lottery if you were lucky, and share a post at the right time in the right place. I would suggest my dear friend Jack: just letting go and keep cool! 🙏😉😊

But as the question remains; what is thought, what is intelligence and who is the one? I am a humble man and try to be nice to everybody, and everyone’s happiness is my happiness. My education is mediocre, and I haven’t any high university degrees. But all through my life, I read a lot and studied myself, and I have gathered a huge experience, maybe more than a normal one can do. Maybe that’s why I don’t care about any feedback! I have noticed well how sensitive some of the authors are here on WP. Many talks about the presence, and they mean the presence of the others on their pages and forget about the other way around. 😳😁😎

In any case, thoughts and thinking have been always my everyday activities. As I well remember in my youth, when I first got to know Socrates, by Al, through “The period of Plato’s works”, I was sitting on a park bench and couldn’t stop thinking. Suddenly a girl asked me what’s wrong?! I came back on me and looked at her, said; sorry, what do you mean? She answered that she saw my face warped so badly. Therefore, she was worried about me. I was so thankful for such humanity, and I also noticed how thoughts give me power and energy to better understanding life.

But am I an intellectual person? Na, let’s read this thoughtful post, and we might found out.

By https://searchingthemeaningoflife.wordpress.com/2021/02/15/thoughts-on-thought/ with thanks.

 A visible thought makes me go faster,
see less, and at the same time rejoice that I am
going to see everything.

Pessoa

Van Gogh, Path at Saint-Remy, December 1889. Oil on canvas, 32.2 x 40.5 cm.  Kasama Nichido Museum of Art, Japan.
Van Gogh, Path at Saint-Remy, December 1889

By Nikos Tsoulias

      What is thought? How did it evolve in man, and how is it created in each person separately in his very early childhood? Does it have a material base, and where is it based? If thought is a matter solely of the mind, what is its relation to the brain? How can a person lose the ability to think rationally? Does the possibility of thinking have a biological reference, or is it only a matter of man as a cultural being? Are thoughts derived only from our own conscience and will, or are foreign thoughts “visiting” us?

      There are endless questions about the most unique and worthy issue that concerns man and can hardly be answered with some certainty. In every other field under consideration, our thought and the object under study are always two distinct parts, while in the case of the study of our thought “observer” and “observed” are identified, subverting the design of the general production of knowledge. When we try to think about our thinking, then we enter a chaotic world, without archimedean points, without any certainty, and above all, without any solid methodology for investigating the issue.

     Thought is perhaps the most basic victim of the famous dualism of man in body and spirit since every structure of our materiality, and every concept of our spirituality are considered in absolute encirclement between them. In fact, a strict rating scale has entered in which the body “flows” towards the image of darkness (due to its given decay), and the spirit “flows” towards the corresponding image of light (due to our strong belief in immortality), and the absolute dimension of body and mind, in my humble opinion, has trapped our own way of thinking. And I explain why.

     Our language code is clearly the tool by which we understand the world and ourselves. But at the same time, this is happening. Our linguistic code forms the framework of our mental horizon, but also the technique of interpretation of each element. Therefore, it necessarily acts with restrictive and given terms. The world is what is not only because we have the given possibilities of the senses, but also because we have the given linguistic code! Every time a scientific or philosophical “example” changes, the semantics of basic concepts necessarily change. For example, ” Einstein, who takes the basic concepts of the Newtonian system, such as weight and space, and thought of in a totally new way » (D. Chopra, R. Tanzi, Super Brain ). Nor, on the other hand, can we discuss our thinking and our spirit outside of our biology. There is no immaterial man!

      Thought is composed of concepts and words, questions and quests. We have found the seat of the higher spiritual functions in the neocortex of the human brain, in this part that evolved only in man. But the most important thing in the whole case of the emergence of thought was the creation of groups and societies and at the same time the formation of our imaginary field into a second more complex reality. We study the correlation between a specific spiritual expression of man and the biological activity of the brain with the technique of electroencephalography. This in no way refers to a linear function of these two fields. Why? Because only consciousness can understand the brain and no mechanical explanation, based on facts about the brain, it is enough “(D. Chopra, R. Tanzi, Super Brain ). Nor, on the other hand, can we discuss our thinking and our spirit outside of our biology. There is no immaterial man!

     Thought is a cultural possibility and a gift, but it is created in a given biological/material possibility. To understand our thinking, it may be necessary to find the evolutionary paths of tens of thousands of years of evolution, to feel its sources and to go step by step to the present strong development of our noosphere, which has the freedom of reflection and research to learns everything that exists in the Universe. But the most difficult field of study and knowledge will be our brain itself, ‘ t the universe of half a kilo “and our minds.

        Every thought attempt for our thought contains a very basic question that Harari raises in his book: Sapiens. A short history of man. ” Or maybe the real question we face is not ‘What do we want to become?’ But “What do we desire to want?” . He adds: “Those who are not intimidated by this question have probably not thought enough about it.”

I am the keeper of the herds.
The herd is my thoughts.
And my thoughts are all their senses.
I think with my eyes and ears
, hands and feet,
nose and mouth.

Pessoa 

source: https://anthologio.wordpress.com/

Religions; the Meaning of an Illuminated Way of Life?

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Part 2: Zoroastrians (and Mani, the painter). The issue of Dualism.

First, I have to make it clear that I don’t want to teach history here. I only want to go to the doctrine of dualism with the help of the past.

When we look back at our religious history, we find out that the term dualism is confined. This exists only from ancient Egyptians to old Persians. (I don’t talk about philosophical religions like Buddhism).

Aside from the Greek and Roman Mythology, in the Egyptians, there are more than one mighty God (and it is not common to define any as “good/bad” Gods, but we try it!): e.a. Amun, Hathor, Horus, Isis & Osiris etc. as good Goddesses/Gods, and Kek, the Goddess of darkness, and Seth as an ambivalent god, characterized by violence, chaos, and strength, connected with the desert, and maybe Anubis/Anput, the God/Goddess of embalming and protector of the dead.

In the ancient Persians, the mighty powers clearly divided into two sides: the light side and the dark side: Ahura-Mazda as the good God, and Ahriman (Angra Mainyu) as the bad God. As you see, there are always two sides: good or bad, dark or light, etc. But with equal powers.

As we look through the history of old Persia, we can see that the main religious belief was based on Dualism (a good God and a bad God) and not on the only “One God”. Until the appearance of the Semitic folk, from Noah to Muhammad, with their single God and all associated angels, and they have got massive believers.

How is the belief in a single god, and how good or bad was the issue of Dualism? That’s what the history shows: The single God rules the majority on this Earth with three different religions, and and unfortunately and strangely too, with an endless war between all three kinds of beliefs from the same root and family!!

What I want to ask is: isn’t the best condition in every situation the balance? I think also that Dualism is that balance which we need. In the ancient Persians, as I want to talk about, was dualism a huge matter.

Ahura-Mazda (meaning ‘Wise Lord’) the God of light, wisdom, and virtue. With his main rules, which were not ten, but only three: Good Thoughts, Good Deeds and Good Words. And his prophet, Zarathustra. (It seems that Ahura-Mazda’s sibling, Ahriman, did not need any prophet. As we know, no devil needs a prophet. Everyone has one inside!)

His teachings challenged the existing traditions of the Indo-Iranian religion and inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Persia. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but his exact birthplace is uncertain.

There are some different narrations of Zarathustra’s wandering in the wilderness (as the most prophet had done), but it had to be almost like this:

At the age of thirty, Zarathustra goes into the wilderness and so enjoys his spirit and his solitude there that he stays for ten years. Finally, he decides to return among people, and share with them his over-brimming wisdom. Like the setting sun, he must descend from the mountain and “go under.”

On his way, he encounters a saint living alone in the forest. This saint once loved mankind, but grew sick of their imperfections and now loves only God. He tells Zarathustra that mankind doesn’t need the gift he brings, but rather help: they need someone to lighten their load and give them alms. Taking his leave of the saint, Zarathustra registers with surprise that the old man has not heard that “God is dead!”

Upon arriving in the town, Zarathustra begins to preach, proclaiming the overman. Man is a rope between beast and overman and must be overcome. The way across is dangerous, but it must not be abandoned for otherworldly hopes. Zarathustra urges the people to remain faithful to this world and this life, and to feel contempt for their all-too-human happiness, reason, virtue, justice, and pity. All this will prepare the way for the overman, who will be the meaning of the earth. Continued here

But there came a breakup in the Zoroastrian religion by a man named Mani, who went further from Dualism into the belief in the Divine.

I have to make another part (3), as I see it’s going to be longer than I thought! Thank you for your interest. 🙏💖🙏

Religions; the Meaning of an Illuminated Way of Life?

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Part 1: The Cathars or Catharism

Carl Gustav Jung says:

The unconscious psyche believes in life after death

Or “Religion is a defence against the experience of God.

And Voltaire claims:

Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.

And: If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.

Since I could define the difference between good and evil for the first time in my life, I have asked myself: “why does human need or must have a religion?” I think it is hard to answer. If we accept the individuality of every human, then the answer will be; the human does not need any religions, because, everyone can define the good from the bad. But as we know, there’s always been a mass, a herd that needs a shepherd.

As we look back to our history, we can see that in the time when the ape climbed down the tree and lost his/her sharp teeth and claws, felt left alone and needed protection.
She/he wanted to have a predominance or super-priority, which can help when in need and can believe in this.

Now let’s go to the title of my article, which I want to write thereabout: The Cathars.

Al, my brother, who had always kicked my mind to wake up and think, told me about some sect. He said that in early Christianity, there were people who were able to lift themselves through meditation. They never needed any warm clothes or much to eat. It has surely to do with reinforcement of the mind, which I understood through the seasons of my LSD experiences.

Although, whatever happened in early Christianity with the help of Catholicism had vanished or lost without a trace. And the most famous first breakup was the Renaissance and later the French revolution. But as we can see, even in the 12th century AC, some different (Oppositum) peoples existed who were related to the divine and the duality; the Cathars.

Catharism (/ˈkæθərɪzəm/; from the Greek [what else!]: καθαροί, katharoi, “the pure [ones]”) was a Christian dualist or Gnostic movement between the 12th and 14th centuries which thrived in Southern Europe, particularly in northern Italy and southern France.

Catharism Sudden flowering took place at a time when Europe, stimulated by the contact with the East that the Crusades had brought, was shaking off the slumber of the Dark Ages and rediscovering ancient wisdom in the classical text.

Little as we know about the Cathars, it seems clear that they were in some way that hairs of Platonic thought, of the esoteric teachings and mysteries of that pre-Roman civilisation that embraced the Mediterranean and the Near East. Simone Weil, a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. Died in 1943 (age only 34) as a result of voluntary starvation in sympathy with her compatriots then under German occupation. A passive resistance! Was she a Catharist, as they believe in passivity?

Cathars and Troubadours, there’s some similarity in it. They go: one of a class of lyric poets and poet-musicians often of knightly rank who flourished from the 11th to the end of the 13th century chiefly in the south of France and the north of Italy and whose major theme was courtly love — compare trouvère. The precise semantic field attached to the word troubadour—are allied in Arabic under a single root w–j–d (و ج د = Happiness) that plays a major role in Sufic discussions of music, and that the word troubadour may in part reflect this. Isn’t it a dreaming society?

Women hold up half of the sky!

Catharism has been seen as giving women the greatest opportunities for independent action since women were found as believers and Perfecti, who were able to administer the sacrament of the consolamentum.

Cathars believed that one would be repeatedly reincarnated until one commits to the self-denial of the material world. A man could be reincarnated as a woman and vice versa. The spirit was of utmost importance to the Cathars and was described as being immaterial and sexless. Because of this belief, the Cathars saw women as equally capable of being spiritual leaders.

I am really wondering what went wrong with Genesis, what the hell could it be, and should it might be!

These (meant surely us, the poor believers) are they who… fell from Paradise when Lucifer lured them thence, with the lying assurance that whereas God allowed them the good only, the Devil (being false to the core) would let them enjoy both good and evil, and he promised to give them wives whom they would love dearly, and that they should have authority over one another, and some amongst them should be kings, or emperors, or counts; and that they would learn to hunt birds with birds, and beasts with beasts. Cathar Prayer

Annihilation; I’d not rather like to write about it. You can surely read it on Wikipedia, or as I might highly recommend it: The Master Game, by Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval, a great read.

(…the Troubadours… mention God and Jesus Christ, it is very probable that they are speaking as Cathars, and that their deity is the “good God” of the Mani’s philosophy’s faith.)

Mani and who was he? that is another story which I will write in the second part. Have a safe and good WE, my lovely friends. 🙏💖

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catharism#:~:text=Catharism%20(%2F%CB%88k%C3%A6%CE%B8,northern%20Italy%20and%20southern%20France.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catharism

https://www.amazon.de/-/en/Graham-Hancock/dp/193470864X

Satnem and Lady Ibentina: a charming couple from the “Place de Vérité”

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Or, Deir Medina / The Place of Truth.

This time, my post is not about kings and pharaohs or Gods and Goddess. It is just about some normal Egyptian people.

Today we open the ‘window’ to show and meet some inhabitants of ‘Deir Medina’, who if they managed to achieve that ‘eternity’ so longed for.

On this occasion, It will refer to two main characters, components called ‘servants’ of the ‘Place of Truth’, presumably: a marriage.
And separated ‘in fact’ by distance for 84 years.

Today, after navigating and meeting them for the first time, it could be nice to ‘rescue’ them from anonymity and alleviate the loneliness and absence they suffer from each other.

A bit of contemporary history: Bernard Bruyere, French archaeologist, after the I ‘G.M. He obtained the title of official, authorized and resident archaeologist of the Deir Medina site, taking that privilege from the previous Italian delegation, at that time fascist and losing.
During the work corresponding to the 1934/5 campaign, Bruyere discovered in the ‘necropolis of the East’, the corresponding well up to the access to the tomb of our protagonists (Tt 1379).

And soon, the excavation brought the tombstones/stelae of their names back to light (I don’t know where they are exposed). After the removal of the dumped rubble, access to the hollow of its only burial chamber soon appeared.

I have not read – the ‘source’ does not allude to this specific fact, but yes, little or much of the interior remained intact. The tomb would most certainly be looted some time in ancient times.
But at least the statuettes of their deceased owners remained together, in the same place of rest and eternity.

Bernard Bruyere describes his reflections as follows:

“As in most of the other deceased in the ‘East’ necropolis, the statuettes do not bear any title that indicates their status / social position; without a doubt, their office must have been quite modest if we look at the simple and scarce funerary furnishings and to the rough and rustic aspect of the tomb.

More here.

Now let stay a bit longer to read more about this beloved pair, with a wonderful description by Marie Grillot.

https://egyptophile.blogspot.com/2018/12/satnem-et-dame-ibentina-un-charmant.html

On the right, Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), craftsman of the “Place de Vérité”, on the left Dame Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B), his wife.
Wooden statues dating from the 18th dynasty discovered in the 1379 tomb of the eastern cemetery of Deir el-Medineh
by Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935
In the background, restitution of Deir el-Medineh by Jean-Claude Golvin

Satnem and his wife “Lady Ibentina” lived, in the New Kingdom, in the village, which was then called Set Maât (the “Place of Truth” – the current Deir el-Medineh). Founded at the beginning of the XVIIIth dynasty under the reign of Thutmose Iᵉʳ, then extended and enlarged several times, especially during the reigns of Thutmose III and the first Ramessids, it housed the craftsmen who worked in the digging and decoration of the mansions of eternity. The Valley of the Kings, the Valley of the Queens, and even more distant necropolises.

Surrounded by high walls, it extends in a desert valley at the foot of the Theban mountain. We know that it “sheltered between 40 to 120 households” which lived in stone houses covered with a roof of palm leaves.

“Set Maât her imenty Ouaset” – the “Place of Truth in the West of Thebes” of antiquity
is today the village of Deir el-Medineh

The community, which also had places of worship as well as its own necropolis. Occupied the site for nearly 500 years.

The village was “rediscovered” in the 19th century: it saw a “parade” of many ‘researchers’ then Egyptologists: Bernardino Drovetti, Henry Salt, Karl Richard Lepsius, Auguste Mariette, Gaston Maspero… Ernesto Schiaparelli undertook excavations there in 1905, then German Georg Christian Julius Möller. The site concession will then be definitively awarded to Ifao in 1917; for thirty years, from 1922 to 1951, Bernard Bruyère will methodically explore the site and make wonderful discoveries.

It was during the 1934-1935 excavation mission that he unearthed the tomb of Satnem and Ibentina in the eastern cemetery. Modest, composed simply: “of a square well and a small vault summarily arranged in the rock”. It will be referenced under the No ° 1379.

It is the only one that contained the statuettes of the two deceased, specifies the Egyptologist who recounts the discovery: “The statuette of a man was placed standing on one of the chairs of the furniture and faced the entrance to the vault. It was enveloped in bands under which a necklace of a thread of small round pale blue and white pearls was twisted around the neck. The statuette of a woman, similarly wrapped in strips of fine linen and the collar adorned with a similar necklace, whose thread, broken, had slipped at her feet, was locked in a wooden chest placed upright on the floor of the vault to the right of the chair, and supporting the other statue. She was also looking towards the entrance, through the slit in the lid of her box as through the slit of an Old Kingdom Mastaba Serdab.

The image of SATNEM, which shows us the statuette recovered by Bruyere, reflects the common characteristics of pharaonic art from the 18th ‘dynasty, before the next’ Amarnic ‘art

The anatomical dimensions, the rigid posture of the arms, the disposition of the big hands, the cut of the waist, the forward left foot, his marked manly torso.
And, above all, the long, elegant skirt and that cropped, round and elaborate wig (closer to a ‘mortarboard’) does not hide the earlobe and, therefore, subtracts unnecessary length from the braids, alleviating the heat they produced. SATNEM’s jovial-looking face, half-smile, and stylish eye makeup keep his gaze open and expectant on an indefinite high point.


Statue of Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), craftsman of the “Place de Vérité” – wood – XVIIIth dynastyDiscovery, along with that of his wife Dame Ibentina, in tomb 1379 in the eastern cemetery of Deir el-Medinehby Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the 1934 – 1935 excavations – Photo © Musée du Louvre / G. Poncet

43 cm high, the statue of Satnem is carved from jujube wood – or sycamore, according to the sources – and rests on a rectangular acacia base. “It is completely painted in red, and the details are enhanced with black and white.”

Satnem is represented as standing: “in the conventional attitude reserved for men: the left foot in front, the arms by the side of the body”. He is simply dressed in a long loincloth with a flat front, tied under the navel.

Slim, flowing, almost slender, his youthful appearance is further accentuated by his very special hairstyle: “rounded and overflowing on the sides”. It is a “short square,” braided into regular locks covering part of the forehead and leaving the earlobe clear.

Statue of Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), craftsman of the “Place de Vérité” – wood – XVIIIth dynasty
Discovery, with that of his wife Dame Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B)
in tomb 1379 of the East cemetery of Deir el-Medineh
by Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935
tombe de khâemouaset QV44 – vallée des reineslouqsor west bank

His face is very slightly lifted as if he was looking upwards … This attitude gives him an interrogative, almost curious air, underlined by his large painted eyes, expressive and surrounded by a very dark and very stretched line of makeup. Her nose and mouth are nicely rendered, and her neck is adorned with a lovely necklace of earthenware beads.

This statue gives off a real presence and almost exudes an expectation, a hope …

What was Satnem’s function within the community? We do not know, unfortunately … “Like all the other deceased of the cemetery of the East, Satnem does not bear any title which could inform us about his social condition, undoubtedly quite modest if one relates to the invoice sufficiently rustic furniture from the tomb “…

The statue of Lady Ibentina, his wife, is carved in sycamore wood. “It was once entirely stuccoed and painted”.

Statue of Lady Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B) – wood – 18th dynastyDiscovery, along with that of her husband Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), in tomb 1379 of the eastern cemetery of Deir el-Medinehby Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935

Ibentina is shown standing, wearing a close-fitting dress that stops at mid-calf. She is slim, petite, charming, exquisite, just like her husband. We cannot help thinking that if the statuettes reflect their “earthly” image, they must have formed a very pretty couple …

Her face, fine and delicate, is framed by a: “tripartite wig, formed of braids held by two ribbons”. Her eyes are made up, are large and stretched, her nose is fine and her mouth well defined.

Her right arm hangs at the side of the body while the left is bent at waist height. The pearl necklace, which was hanging from her neck, has slipped and is partly rolled up on the left forearm; she wears: “on the wrist of each arm a large bracelet imitating gold bracelets and enamel plaques”.

“Ibentin, standing, wears a tight dress almost to the ankles.

With a slim figure, charming physiognomy, flirtatious of perfect silhouette, like her husband. “It is inevitable to imagine that, if these statuettes reflect the” earthly “image of her, Ibentin and Satnem formed a very nice couple.”

“Ibentin’s face, very defined and delicate, is framed by a” tripartite wig, with braids tied by two ribbons. “
Her eyes are so wide, big and made up, her nose and mouth very subtly outlined. “

Statue of Lady Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B) – wood – 18th dynastyDiscovery, along with that of her husband Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), in tomb 1379 of the eastern cemetery of Deir el-Medinehby Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935

“The hair, the pupils and the ring of the bracelets are painted black. The enamel of the bracelets is red, and the cornea of the eyes is white. All the rest of the face, body and coat are pale yellow”, specifies Bernard Bruyère.

On the wooden base of the statuette, it is inscribed: “a formula of offerings to Osiris, lord of Abydos and Busiris”.

Lady Ibentina is like “sheltered” in “a naos with a removable cover”: “The sycamore crate which contains the statuette of a woman, was specially made for this purpose. It is hollowed out in a single block”.

Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), craftsman of the “Place de Vérité” and Dame Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B) – wood – XVIIIth dynasty
Statues discovered, in the 1379 tomb of the East cemetery of Deir el-Medineh, by Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935

During the sharing of the excavations – which took place in 1934 – the spouses united during their lifetime and bound by their statuettes for what was to be their eternity were unfortunately separated …

Dame Ibentina remained in Egypt: she was recorded in the Journal des Entrées of the Cairo Museum under the reference JE 63646A / B. But Satnem left for Paris. He is now at the Louvre (E 14319), where he represents, through his charming presence, the artisans of the Place de Vérité.

Marie Grillot

Sources:

FIFAO 15 Bruyère, Bernard – The East Necropolis (1937)
Pharaoh’s artists, Deir el Medineh and the Valley of the Kings, Louvre, 2002
A Century of French Excavations in Egypt 1880-1980 – Cairo School (IFAO) – Louvre Museum, 1981
Official catalog Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Mohamed Saleh, Hourig Sourouzian, Verlag Philippe von Zabern, 1997
Treasures of Egypt – The Wonders of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Francesco Tiradritti
The treasures of ancient Egypt at the Cairo museum, National Geographic
” The tombs of Deir el-Medineh ” (Osirisnet)
Statue of Satnem (Louvre museum)
Dame Ibentina (Egyptian Museum in Cairo)