Religions; the Meaning of an Illuminated Way of Life?


Part 1: The Cathars or Catharism

Carl Gustav Jung says:

The unconscious psyche believes in life after death

Or “Religion is a defence against the experience of God.

And Voltaire claims:

Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.

And: If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.

Since I could define the difference between good and evil for the first time in my life, I have asked myself: “why does human need or must have a religion?” I think it is hard to answer. If we accept the individuality of every human, then the answer will be; the human does not need any religions, because, everyone can define the good from the bad. But as we know, there’s always been a mass, a herd that needs a shepherd.

As we look back to our history, we can see that in the time when the ape climbed down the tree and lost his/her sharp teeth and claws, felt left alone and needed protection.
She/he wanted to have a predominance or super-priority, which can help when in need and can believe in this.

Now let’s go to the title of my article, which I want to write thereabout: The Cathars.

Al, my brother, who had always kicked my mind to wake up and think, told me about some sect. He said that in early Christianity, there were people who were able to lift themselves through meditation. They never needed any warm clothes or much to eat. It has surely to do with reinforcement of the mind, which I understood through the seasons of my LSD experiences.

Although, whatever happened in early Christianity with the help of Catholicism had vanished or lost without a trace. And the most famous first breakup was the Renaissance and later the French revolution. But as we can see, even in the 12th century AC, some different (Oppositum) peoples existed who were related to the divine and the duality; the Cathars.

Catharism (/ˈkæθərɪzəm/; from the Greek [what else!]: καθαροί, katharoi, “the pure [ones]”) was a Christian dualist or Gnostic movement between the 12th and 14th centuries which thrived in Southern Europe, particularly in northern Italy and southern France.

Catharism Sudden flowering took place at a time when Europe, stimulated by the contact with the East that the Crusades had brought, was shaking off the slumber of the Dark Ages and rediscovering ancient wisdom in the classical text.

Little as we know about the Cathars, it seems clear that they were in some way that hairs of Platonic thought, of the esoteric teachings and mysteries of that pre-Roman civilisation that embraced the Mediterranean and the Near East. Simone Weil, a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. Died in 1943 (age only 34) as a result of voluntary starvation in sympathy with her compatriots then under German occupation. A passive resistance! Was she a Catharist, as they believe in passivity?

Cathars and Troubadours, there’s some similarity in it. They go: one of a class of lyric poets and poet-musicians often of knightly rank who flourished from the 11th to the end of the 13th century chiefly in the south of France and the north of Italy and whose major theme was courtly love — compare trouvère. The precise semantic field attached to the word troubadour—are allied in Arabic under a single root w–j–d (و ج د = Happiness) that plays a major role in Sufic discussions of music, and that the word troubadour may in part reflect this. Isn’t it a dreaming society?

Women hold up half of the sky!

Catharism has been seen as giving women the greatest opportunities for independent action since women were found as believers and Perfecti, who were able to administer the sacrament of the consolamentum.

Cathars believed that one would be repeatedly reincarnated until one commits to the self-denial of the material world. A man could be reincarnated as a woman and vice versa. The spirit was of utmost importance to the Cathars and was described as being immaterial and sexless. Because of this belief, the Cathars saw women as equally capable of being spiritual leaders.

I am really wondering what went wrong with Genesis, what the hell could it be, and should it might be!

These (meant surely us, the poor believers) are they who… fell from Paradise when Lucifer lured them thence, with the lying assurance that whereas God allowed them the good only, the Devil (being false to the core) would let them enjoy both good and evil, and he promised to give them wives whom they would love dearly, and that they should have authority over one another, and some amongst them should be kings, or emperors, or counts; and that they would learn to hunt birds with birds, and beasts with beasts. Cathar Prayer

Annihilation; I’d not rather like to write about it. You can surely read it on Wikipedia, or as I might highly recommend it: The Master Game, by Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval, a great read.

(…the Troubadours… mention God and Jesus Christ, it is very probable that they are speaking as Cathars, and that their deity is the “good God” of the Mani’s philosophy’s faith.)

Mani and who was he? that is another story which I will write in the second part. Have a safe and good WE, my lovely friends. 🙏💖


Satnem and Lady Ibentina: a charming couple from the “Place de Vérité”


Or, Deir Medina / The Place of Truth.

This time, my post is not about kings and pharaohs or Gods and Goddess. It is just about some normal Egyptian people.

Today we open the ‘window’ to show and meet some inhabitants of ‘Deir Medina’, who if they managed to achieve that ‘eternity’ so longed for.

On this occasion, It will refer to two main characters, components called ‘servants’ of the ‘Place of Truth’, presumably: a marriage.
And separated ‘in fact’ by distance for 84 years.

Today, after navigating and meeting them for the first time, it could be nice to ‘rescue’ them from anonymity and alleviate the loneliness and absence they suffer from each other.

A bit of contemporary history: Bernard Bruyere, French archaeologist, after the I ‘G.M. He obtained the title of official, authorized and resident archaeologist of the Deir Medina site, taking that privilege from the previous Italian delegation, at that time fascist and losing.
During the work corresponding to the 1934/5 campaign, Bruyere discovered in the ‘necropolis of the East’, the corresponding well up to the access to the tomb of our protagonists (Tt 1379).

And soon, the excavation brought the tombstones/stelae of their names back to light (I don’t know where they are exposed). After the removal of the dumped rubble, access to the hollow of its only burial chamber soon appeared.

I have not read – the ‘source’ does not allude to this specific fact, but yes, little or much of the interior remained intact. The tomb would most certainly be looted some time in ancient times.
But at least the statuettes of their deceased owners remained together, in the same place of rest and eternity.

Bernard Bruyere describes his reflections as follows:

“As in most of the other deceased in the ‘East’ necropolis, the statuettes do not bear any title that indicates their status / social position; without a doubt, their office must have been quite modest if we look at the simple and scarce funerary furnishings and to the rough and rustic aspect of the tomb.

More here.

Now let stay a bit longer to read more about this beloved pair, with a wonderful description by Marie Grillot.

On the right, Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), craftsman of the “Place de Vérité”, on the left Dame Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B), his wife.
Wooden statues dating from the 18th dynasty discovered in the 1379 tomb of the eastern cemetery of Deir el-Medineh
by Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935
In the background, restitution of Deir el-Medineh by Jean-Claude Golvin

Satnem and his wife “Lady Ibentina” lived, in the New Kingdom, in the village, which was then called Set Maât (the “Place of Truth” – the current Deir el-Medineh). Founded at the beginning of the XVIIIth dynasty under the reign of Thutmose Iᵉʳ, then extended and enlarged several times, especially during the reigns of Thutmose III and the first Ramessids, it housed the craftsmen who worked in the digging and decoration of the mansions of eternity. The Valley of the Kings, the Valley of the Queens, and even more distant necropolises.

Surrounded by high walls, it extends in a desert valley at the foot of the Theban mountain. We know that it “sheltered between 40 to 120 households” which lived in stone houses covered with a roof of palm leaves.

“Set Maât her imenty Ouaset” – the “Place of Truth in the West of Thebes” of antiquity
is today the village of Deir el-Medineh

The community, which also had places of worship as well as its own necropolis. Occupied the site for nearly 500 years.

The village was “rediscovered” in the 19th century: it saw a “parade” of many ‘researchers’ then Egyptologists: Bernardino Drovetti, Henry Salt, Karl Richard Lepsius, Auguste Mariette, Gaston Maspero… Ernesto Schiaparelli undertook excavations there in 1905, then German Georg Christian Julius Möller. The site concession will then be definitively awarded to Ifao in 1917; for thirty years, from 1922 to 1951, Bernard Bruyère will methodically explore the site and make wonderful discoveries.

It was during the 1934-1935 excavation mission that he unearthed the tomb of Satnem and Ibentina in the eastern cemetery. Modest, composed simply: “of a square well and a small vault summarily arranged in the rock”. It will be referenced under the No ° 1379.

It is the only one that contained the statuettes of the two deceased, specifies the Egyptologist who recounts the discovery: “The statuette of a man was placed standing on one of the chairs of the furniture and faced the entrance to the vault. It was enveloped in bands under which a necklace of a thread of small round pale blue and white pearls was twisted around the neck. The statuette of a woman, similarly wrapped in strips of fine linen and the collar adorned with a similar necklace, whose thread, broken, had slipped at her feet, was locked in a wooden chest placed upright on the floor of the vault to the right of the chair, and supporting the other statue. She was also looking towards the entrance, through the slit in the lid of her box as through the slit of an Old Kingdom Mastaba Serdab.

The image of SATNEM, which shows us the statuette recovered by Bruyere, reflects the common characteristics of pharaonic art from the 18th ‘dynasty, before the next’ Amarnic ‘art

The anatomical dimensions, the rigid posture of the arms, the disposition of the big hands, the cut of the waist, the forward left foot, his marked manly torso.
And, above all, the long, elegant skirt and that cropped, round and elaborate wig (closer to a ‘mortarboard’) does not hide the earlobe and, therefore, subtracts unnecessary length from the braids, alleviating the heat they produced. SATNEM’s jovial-looking face, half-smile, and stylish eye makeup keep his gaze open and expectant on an indefinite high point.

Statue of Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), craftsman of the “Place de Vérité” – wood – XVIIIth dynastyDiscovery, along with that of his wife Dame Ibentina, in tomb 1379 in the eastern cemetery of Deir el-Medinehby Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the 1934 – 1935 excavations – Photo © Musée du Louvre / G. Poncet

43 cm high, the statue of Satnem is carved from jujube wood – or sycamore, according to the sources – and rests on a rectangular acacia base. “It is completely painted in red, and the details are enhanced with black and white.”

Satnem is represented as standing: “in the conventional attitude reserved for men: the left foot in front, the arms by the side of the body”. He is simply dressed in a long loincloth with a flat front, tied under the navel.

Slim, flowing, almost slender, his youthful appearance is further accentuated by his very special hairstyle: “rounded and overflowing on the sides”. It is a “short square,” braided into regular locks covering part of the forehead and leaving the earlobe clear.

Statue of Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), craftsman of the “Place de Vérité” – wood – XVIIIth dynasty
Discovery, with that of his wife Dame Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B)
in tomb 1379 of the East cemetery of Deir el-Medineh
by Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935
tombe de khâemouaset QV44 – vallée des reineslouqsor west bank

His face is very slightly lifted as if he was looking upwards … This attitude gives him an interrogative, almost curious air, underlined by his large painted eyes, expressive and surrounded by a very dark and very stretched line of makeup. Her nose and mouth are nicely rendered, and her neck is adorned with a lovely necklace of earthenware beads.

This statue gives off a real presence and almost exudes an expectation, a hope …

What was Satnem’s function within the community? We do not know, unfortunately … “Like all the other deceased of the cemetery of the East, Satnem does not bear any title which could inform us about his social condition, undoubtedly quite modest if one relates to the invoice sufficiently rustic furniture from the tomb “…

The statue of Lady Ibentina, his wife, is carved in sycamore wood. “It was once entirely stuccoed and painted”.

Statue of Lady Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B) – wood – 18th dynastyDiscovery, along with that of her husband Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), in tomb 1379 of the eastern cemetery of Deir el-Medinehby Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935

Ibentina is shown standing, wearing a close-fitting dress that stops at mid-calf. She is slim, petite, charming, exquisite, just like her husband. We cannot help thinking that if the statuettes reflect their “earthly” image, they must have formed a very pretty couple …

Her face, fine and delicate, is framed by a: “tripartite wig, formed of braids held by two ribbons”. Her eyes are made up, are large and stretched, her nose is fine and her mouth well defined.

Her right arm hangs at the side of the body while the left is bent at waist height. The pearl necklace, which was hanging from her neck, has slipped and is partly rolled up on the left forearm; she wears: “on the wrist of each arm a large bracelet imitating gold bracelets and enamel plaques”.

“Ibentin, standing, wears a tight dress almost to the ankles.

With a slim figure, charming physiognomy, flirtatious of perfect silhouette, like her husband. “It is inevitable to imagine that, if these statuettes reflect the” earthly “image of her, Ibentin and Satnem formed a very nice couple.”

“Ibentin’s face, very defined and delicate, is framed by a” tripartite wig, with braids tied by two ribbons. “
Her eyes are so wide, big and made up, her nose and mouth very subtly outlined. “

Statue of Lady Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B) – wood – 18th dynastyDiscovery, along with that of her husband Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), in tomb 1379 of the eastern cemetery of Deir el-Medinehby Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935

“The hair, the pupils and the ring of the bracelets are painted black. The enamel of the bracelets is red, and the cornea of the eyes is white. All the rest of the face, body and coat are pale yellow”, specifies Bernard Bruyère.

On the wooden base of the statuette, it is inscribed: “a formula of offerings to Osiris, lord of Abydos and Busiris”.

Lady Ibentina is like “sheltered” in “a naos with a removable cover”: “The sycamore crate which contains the statuette of a woman, was specially made for this purpose. It is hollowed out in a single block”.

Satnem (Louvre – E 14319), craftsman of the “Place de Vérité” and Dame Ibentina (Cairo Museum – JE 63646A / B) – wood – XVIIIth dynasty
Statues discovered, in the 1379 tomb of the East cemetery of Deir el-Medineh, by Bernard Bruyère (IFAO) during the excavations of 1934 – 1935

During the sharing of the excavations – which took place in 1934 – the spouses united during their lifetime and bound by their statuettes for what was to be their eternity were unfortunately separated …

Dame Ibentina remained in Egypt: she was recorded in the Journal des Entrées of the Cairo Museum under the reference JE 63646A / B. But Satnem left for Paris. He is now at the Louvre (E 14319), where he represents, through his charming presence, the artisans of the Place de Vérité.

Marie Grillot


FIFAO 15 Bruyère, Bernard – The East Necropolis (1937)
Pharaoh’s artists, Deir el Medineh and the Valley of the Kings, Louvre, 2002
A Century of French Excavations in Egypt 1880-1980 – Cairo School (IFAO) – Louvre Museum, 1981
Official catalog Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Mohamed Saleh, Hourig Sourouzian, Verlag Philippe von Zabern, 1997
Treasures of Egypt – The Wonders of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Francesco Tiradritti
The treasures of ancient Egypt at the Cairo museum, National Geographic
” The tombs of Deir el-Medineh ” (Osirisnet)
Statue of Satnem (Louvre museum)
Dame Ibentina (Egyptian Museum in Cairo)

Sixty Years On and We Can Still Learn.


 “The knowledge of death came to me that night… I went into the inner death and saw that outer dying is better than inner death. And, I decided to die outside and live within… I turned away and sought the place of the inner life.” Red Book

Tomorrow is the sixtieth anniversary of Dr Carl Gustav Jung’ death, and I wonder as I see the genius and power of his knowledge is getting huger and more and more extensive. I want humbly to drop some notes on this Master.

I have once mentioned that as Al and I got to know DR Sigmund Freud and were fascinated about the psyche, Dr Jung came to us not just as the student of Dr Freud but as a newcomer Master in beyond the psyche.

Actually, the term was the UFO, as we were entangled in the early 70s, and we’d noticed how a psychologist deals with this topic. It was not only an analysis of the psyche of humans but a universal analyse through galaxies. I don’t want to say that he’s a superman. I but believe that he’s superior for sure.

He has shown us many doors in the human’s soul, which we couldn’t even know how closed are they. We can open them one after another if understanding him, and his teaching is so extensive that after so many years, we have still a lot to learn.

And there is a message, his message, for all of us. We can and might have to look at “Death” in this way:

Here is a beautiful tribute to Dr Jung by Susanne Heine. It’s written in German. Hence I translate it into English. Though if someone knows German, the original is here.

GEDANKEN FÜR DEN TAG. The sixtieth anniversary of the death of Dr Carl Gustav Jung

Susanne Heine über Carl Gustav Jung

(“Gott in mir”. Anlässlich dessen 60. Todestages blickt die evangelische Theologin und Professorin für Religionspsychologie der Universität Wien, Susanne Heine, auf die herausfordernde Gedankenwelt C. G. Jungs.)

“God in me”. On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of his death, the Protestant theologian and professor for the psychology of religion at the University of Vienna, Susanne Heine, takes a look at C. G. Jung’s challenging world of ideas.

“It is really not easy to get into conversation with theologians”, complains the old gentleman in a letter from 1953, because “they only hear themselves and call this the word of God”. The old man was Carl Gustav Jung. Eight years later, in June 1961, he died in Küsnacht on Lake Zurich at the age of 86, i.e. 60 years ago.

Jung knows what he’s talking about. His father is a pastor of the Swiss Reformed Church. The rectory and the church are in Laufen, on a rocky outcrop, with the Rhine Falls roaring below. Jung spends his early childhood there: in nature between the bright sun and the dark and dangerous river that washes many a corpse onto the bank. The fact that light and dark are closely interwoven will accompany Jung throughout his life.

The family moves to a country parish near Basel and Jung lives in the routine of church life. He asks about the meaning of the rites and teachings, but his father answers with lifeless theological phrases or admits that he simply does not understand many things himself. The son feels left alone and notes about the theologians: “Here we go, they don’t know anything about it and don’t think anything either.” Then how can you talk about it? I suspect that Jung speaks from the heart to many, even if they do not have a pastor for a father.

With Jung, this is reflected in dark dreams. When he was about twelve years old, he saw himself standing in front of the Basel Minster, above the throne of God in heaven. Suddenly a large pile of dung falls down from there and destroys the church. He realizes: “The church was a place to which I was no longer allowed to go. There was no life there for me, but death.” With this, C. G. Jung says goodbye to theology and the church, but not to religion and God, whom he encounters in other ways.

I am honoured to know this genius, and I much appreciate his teaching.


Das C.G. Jung Lesebuch, 5. Auflage, Walter Verlag, 1998.
Aniela Jaffé: Erinnerungen, Träume und Gedanken von C.G. Jung, 11. Auflage, Walter Verlag, 1999.
Susanne Heine: Grundlagen der Religionspsychologie, Kapitel 8: C.G. Jung – die göttliche Natur, UTB 2528, Verlag Vandenhoeck&Ruprecht, 2005.

Sibyls: Wandering between gods and humans.

The Almighty with Prophets and Sybils. Pietro Perugino, 1500, Collegio del Cambio, Perugia


Priestess of Delphi (1891) by John Collier, showing the Pythia sitting on a tripod with vapor rising from a crack in the earth beneath her

Michelangelo‘s Delphic SibylSistine Chapel

These paintings are surely familiar to most of you, or especially for Jungians who seen and used them often. It’s also good to know who they were (for me at least!), and we can see how interesting their story is.

A Sybil is a woman who prophesied, while in a state of frenzy, under the supposed inspiration of a deity. In the Jewish sense of persons who felt themselves spiritually impelled to speak to the people in the name of God, prophets were unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans, among whom prophecy was limited to the deliverances of the sibyls (σίβυλλαι). The ancient sources differ as to the number and nativity of these sibyls. Plato speaks of only one sibyl, while Aristotle and Aristophanes mention several, and Varro (in Lactantius, “Divinarum Institutionum,” i. 6) enumerates ten, including a number from the East.

Also, Cassandra might be a Sibyl. Both Cassandra and Laocoön warned against keeping the horse, in the legend of Trojan War . While Cassandra had been given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, and also cursed not being believed. I can still see her crying out: “Don’t bring the horse in”!

The sibyls were female prophets or oracles in Ancient Greece. The earliest sibyls, according to legend, prophesied at holy sites. Their prophecies were influenced by divine inspiration from a deity, originally at Delphi and Pessinos.

Let’s have a look at the Biblical sources:

Connection with Biblical Personages

The connection of the sibyl with Biblical personages appears also in a statement found in the extant collection of the Sibylline Books to the effect thatshe asserted herself to belong to the sixth generation of man and to be descended from Noah (i. 298), while in another passage she termed herself a virgin cf the blood of Noah (iii. 827). On account of these statements the Erythræan pagan sibyl was likewise said to be descended from the sixth generation after the Flood (Eusebius, “Constantini Oratio ad S. Coetum,” xviii.). The Hebrew sibyl was alleged also to have been the wife of one of Noah’s sons, and consequently to have been saved in the ark (Plato’s “Phædrus,” p. 244b, note).

Along according to Marie Louise von Franz, Dr Carl Gustav Jung says great advice about the Oracle of Delphi:

Even I stunningly found out that there’s a Persian Sibyl:

The Persian Sibyl. Michelangelo, 1508 – 1512, detail from the Sistine Chapel ceiling, Rome

From an interesting article, more here

And here, we can read more about this fascinating symbol, with great thanks.

By SearchingTheMeaningOfLife

Sibyls: Wandering between gods and humans.

Sibylla was the collective name of a class of divinatory women with great prophetic power who had no real blood relationship with each other but shared many characteristics. They were exclusively women who had the ability to predict the future with lyrics….
Unlike the Pythians, they were not part of a temple or priesthood.
They were usually wanderers, descended and acted in and from many peoples and cultures, and their prophecies were in the form of sermons. It is noteworthy that these prophetesses gave their prophecies without being asked by anyone and nothing have to do with any oracle. Then, the word Sibyl was to describe any woman with divination, who prophesied spontaneously, without being asked, when she fell into ecstasy, future events, usually unpleasant or terrible. As the ancient Greeks and Romans believed, this happened because they accepted the visit of a divine spirit.

When they gave their prophecies, they were in an ecstatic state, and the people believed that their words were the voice of God. Each Sibyl was believed to have had the prophetic gift from birth.

They considered it an existence between God and man. She was not immortal, of course, but her lifespan far exceeded
human standards. And as the usurper God Apollo held the lyre, so Sibylla held another stringed musical instrument; the samviki (a kind of triangular lyre). Sibylla’s contact with her uncle presupposed her virginity.

A Sibyl, as we said, was not in the service of any oracle and did not make her prophetic power a profession. So she could go from one place to another where she was worshipped as a divine figure, and this was a serious reason for many Sibyls to bear witness.

Each place she had passed, acted in and worshipped a Sibyl created her own Sibylline Tradition, which could not be identified with the similar tradition of another place. So every place that had a Sibylline tradition believed in its own Sibyl.

The main difference between the Sibyls and the prophets of the various oracles is that the latter, such as e.g. Pythia in the Oracle of Delphi, prophesied only by answering well-defined questions, while the Sibyls prophesied, without accepting questions first.

The traditions of the Sibyls are very ancient.

It seems that relevant traditions from the countries of the Middle East passed to the Greek area through Asia Minor at a time when mystical tendencies prevailed and philosophical reflection, had not yet been born on the shores of Ionia. The belief of the ancient peoples in the sensitive and intuitive nature of women contributed to many quotations in the form of oracles or prophecies attributed to a Sibyl, and thus, the tradition was gradually enriched.

Many times they were given prophecies invented after great events, and because this was very impressive, it made many people pay attention to the prophecies of Sibylla.

This created a rich collection of sibylline oracles, the influence of which was felt by the people until the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, they kept many books written by the Sibyls, and the leaders seem to have consulted them frequently.

The first mention of these books is made during the narration of the reign of the semi-mythical Roman king Tarquin. From Kymaia Sibylla (the name refers to Kimi of Campania in Italy), the Roman king Tarquinius had bought the books of the “sibyl oracles“, which were kept in Rome, specifically in the temple of Zeus at the Capitol.

These books, of which only a few excerpts have survived, should not be confused with the “Sibylline Spells”, 12 books of prophecy allegedly written in a Judeo-Christian setting.

The oldest Greek texts speak of a Sibyl. Thus Heraclitus speaks first of Sibyl as a specific figure, followed by EuripidesAristotle and Plato. The first to speak of Sibyls in the plural is Aristotle. The sources after him know three, four or even ten Sibyls.

The Pausanias writes that the oldest of all the sibyls was Herophilus, who lived before the Trojan War, daughter of Zeus and granddaughter of Neptune. Younger than her was another Herophilus, who lived near a water source in the Reds of Asia Minor (Heraclitus, fr. 92). Sources after Aristotle mention three, 4 or even 10 Sibyls. According to ancient legends, there were a total of 12 Sibyls throughout antiquity.

The Greek report about the action of Sibylla covers the whole area of ​​Hellenism, from Central Asia to Italy. In the Greek East, the most famous was Sibylla, who was worshipped in the city of Erythres, and the Greek West, the one who was worshipped in Kymi of Campania.

One of the oldest was the Sibyl of Marpissos in Troy. They also called her Hellespontia and considered her the daughter of Dardanus and the Island, the daughter of Teucer. Maybe it should be identified with the Red Sibyl. Her action is connected with Aeneas, who left after the fall of Troy, to arrive in Italy after many wanderings and become the ancestor of the Romans. Sibylla had given auspicious oracles to Aeneas.

The Red Sybil was also known as Herophilus. The Jerome places the edge of around 744 BC … An inscription from our Red city informs that the Sibyl lived about 900 years. According to Pausanias, he lived for a time in DelphiDelos, and Samos. Perhaps the stay of this Sibyl in Samos created the tradition of Samia Sibyl, whose peak Jerome places in 712 BC.

There is also Sibylla from Kolofona, known as Lampousa. She was considered the daughter of the soothsayer Calchas.
Other traditions speak of the Phrygian, for Sardiniki (from Sardis) and the rhodium Sibyl.
The tradition of the Sibyl of Delphi brings it in relation to the sponsor god Apollo. She was his wife, his sister or his daughter.
The Thettali Sibyl was known by the name Mando and thought for a descendant of Tiresias . There was also Thesprotida Sibylla. The Sibyl of Kimi had the name Dimo, perhaps a diminutive of Demophilis. In Kymi, there was an underground chamber, the seat of Sibylla and a “ stone jug” with its remains.

Finally, a variety of other traditions tell us about Sibylla, the Cimmerians, the Italians, the Sicilians, the Libyans, the Persians, the Chaldeans, the Jews and the Egyptians. Even the queen of Sava has been identified with the face of Sibyl.
The etymology of the name “Sibylla” is not known with certainty. In ancient times, as the Latin writer Lactantius (4th century AD) informs us, the word was composed of the Doric form of the noun “god” (sios) and the aeolian form of the noun “vouli” = will (bullet). Sibyl, according to this version, therefore meant one that reveals the will of God. Various speculations have been made about the origin of the name, but the investigation has not been concluded.

The research was done by Giovi Vasiliki. Excerpts and paragraphs were collected from various sources.SOURCE: /