The Term of the Collective Unconscious (1936), Part 2


I see and know as I want to write part 2 of my latest post, I still have some “serial” posts waiting to continue writing, but I believe this one is important enough to continue first! Therefore, let’s keep up this one to find out our own inner past, which I count on. And as Jung himself mentioned: the second is a presentation of its importance for psychology.

To be honest, I would like to ask Dr Jung if he believes in reincarnation, as I think in the permanent exams which we must get through! For me, there is a solid relationship to our past; if we only remember, it could free us from this lockdown of our understanding. Anyway, let’s go on.; (As we read, there are some ads in the human soul which separate us from animals, apart of instinct.)

2; The psychological meaning of the collective unconscious. (a)

Our medical psychology, which grew out of professional practice, emphasizes the personal nature of the psyche. I mean primarily the views of Freud and Adler. It is a psychology of the person, and its etiological or causal factors are considered almost entirely personal in nature. After all, even this psychology is based on certain general biological factors, such as the sexual instinct or the urge to assert oneself, and by no means merely on personal idiosyncrasies. It is compelled to do so insofar as it claims to be an explanatory science. Neither of these views disputes the instincts that animals and humans share nor their impact on personal psychology. Instincts, however, are non-personal, widespread and hereditary factors of a motivating character, which are often so remote from the fringes of consciousness that modern psychotherapy is faced with the task of helping the patient to become aware of them.

Moreover, the instincts are not in their nature, unclear and vague. Still, they have specifically formed drives that pursue their inherent aims long before any realization, regardless of any degree of awareness. Hence they form very close analogies to the archetypes, so close that there is reason to believe that the archetypes are the unconscious images of the instincts themselves; in other words, they represent the basic pattern of instinctual behaviour.

Therefore, the collective unconscious hypothesis is about as daring as the assumption that instincts exist. It is fair to say that human activity is, to a large extent, influenced by instincts apart from the rational motivations of the conscious mind. Now, suppose it is asserted that innate and universal principles of form influence our imagination, perception, and thinking equally. In that case, it seems that a normally functioning understanding can discover just as much or just as little mysticism in this idea as in the instinct theory. Although this accusation of mysticism has often been levelled against my view, I must once again emphasize that the notion of the collective unconscious is neither a speculative nor a philosophical but an empirical matter. The question simply is; do such universal forms exist, or do they not? If there is, then there is an area of the psyche that can be called the collective unconscious. Diagnosing the collective unconscious is not always an easy task. It is not enough to emphasize the often apparent archetypal nature of unconscious products, for these can just as easily be inferred from acquisitions through language and upbringing. Cryptomnesia should also be ruled out, which in some cases is nearly impossible. Despite all these difficulties, enough individual cases remain that show, beyond a reasonable doubt, autochthonously resurrected mythological motifs. If such an unconscious exists at all, psychological explanations must take cognizance of it and subject certain supposedly personal etiologies to more severe criticism.

What I mean can perhaps be explained with a concrete example. You have probably read Freud’s discussion of a particular painting by Leonardo da Vinci (Freud: A Childhood Memoir of Leonardo da Vinci. 1910): Saint Anne with Mary and the Christ Child. Freud explains the remarkable picture in terms of the fact that Leonardo himself had two mothers. This causality is personal. We do not wish to dwell on the fact that such images are anything but unique, nor on the slight disagreement that Saint Anne is the grandmother of Christ, but emphasize that there is a non-personal motive intertwined with the apparently personal psychology, which we know well from elsewhere. It is the motif of the two mothers, an archetype that can be found in many variants in the fields of mythology and religion and forms the basis of numerous representations of collectives. I might mention, for example, the motif of dual parentage, that is, human and divine parentage, as in Heracles, who, unwittingly adopted by Hera, attained immortality. What is a myth in Greece is even a ritual in Egypt. There the pharaoh is by nature both human and divine. In the birth chambers of the Egyptian temples, the pharaoh’s second divine conception and birth are depicted on the walls – he was “twice-born”. This is an idea that is the basis of all reincarnation mysteries, including that of Christianity. Christ himself was born twice; through baptism, he was born of water in the Jordan and again of the Spirit.

Consequently, in the Roman liturgy, the baptismal font is referred to as “Uterus Ecclesia”,; and as one can read in the Roman Missal, it is still called that today, in the consecration of the baptismal water on the Sabbath Sanctum, the Saturday before Easter. Be that as it may, in early Gnosticism, the Spirit, appearing in the form of a dove, was envisioned as Sophia, Sapientia, Wisdom, and the Mother of Christ. Because of these motives of dual parenthood, instead of having good and evil fairies performing a “magical adoption” with curse or blessing, children today are given godparents, namely (Swiss German) “Götti” and “Gotte”, (English) “Goldafter” and “Godmother”.

The idea of a second birth is temporally and spatially widespread. In the early days of medicine, it appears as a magical remedy; in many religions, it is the mystical experience; it forms the central idea of medieval natural philosophy and, last but not least, the infantile fantasy of many small and “grown” children who believe that their parents are not their real, but only adoptive parents to whom they were handed over. Benvenuto Cellini, for example, also had this idea, as he reports in his autobiography. (Cellini: Life of the B’C’, translated and edited by Goethe, 1803)

To be continue… 🙏💖


On “The concept” of the collective unconscious (1936): Lecture 1936 in the Abernethian Society at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, under the title “The Concept of the Collective Unconscious < published in the journal of that hospital, XLIV, London 1936/37, p .46-49 and 64-66. The first edition of the German translation in Collected Works (CW), Volume 9/1, pp. 55-66.

The image at the top: from Pixabay



This time, let’s go back to the Empire time, the time of Napoleon. There we find a discovery of a peculiar kind. An astounding form of the Zodiac!

Jean-Baptiste Prosper Jollois, a French civil engineer, was born on January 4, 1776. He was in the very first class of the new Ecole Polytechnique, founded in 1794 to train engineers…

The zodiac at Esna, engraving after drawing by Jean-Baptiste Prosper Jollois and Edouard Devilliers du Terrage, Description de l’Égypte, Antiquités, vol. 1, 1809 (Linda Hall Library)

Jollois was one of what is traditionally said to have been 151 savants – there may have been as many as 167 – who were picked to form a Commission of Arts and Sciences to go by ship to an unknown destination and there to investigate the geography, natural history, and modern culture of this country yet to be announced. He was assigned to accompany Pierre-Simon Girard, chief engineer, as he made his way to upper (southern) Egypt, following in the wake of military forces pursuing the mamelukes. The job of the young engineers was to survey the Nile and the irrigation systems in use. But when they reached a location near Dendera, everything changed, at least for Jollois. There he met the artist Vivant Denon, who had accompanied the first military invasion into upper Egypt and had discovered not only the ruins of a temple at Dendera but a carved stone zodiac hidden in a small room on the top of the temple.

EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY – DENDERAH ZODIAC Detail of the supporters of the ancient (Ptolemaic) marble zodiac in the upper temple of the Temple of Hathor at Denderah Stock Photo
Detail of the fourth image, the Zodiac at Esna, showing the plate signature: “Jollois et Devilliers delt.” (Linda Hall Library)
The Zodiac of Dendera, detail of an engraving, after a drawing by Edouard Devilliers du Terrage and Jean-Baptiste Prosper Jollois, Description de l’Égypt, Antiquités, plate vol. 4, 1809-28 (Linda Hall Library)

Source: Linda Hall Library

The Picture at the top: modern-papyrus-depicting-the-Dendera-zodiac-or-denderah-zodiac-an-Egyptian-bas-relief-from-the-ceiling-of-the-pronaos-or-portico-of-a-chapel-dedicated-to-Osiris-in-the-Hathor-temple-at-Dendera-contain

Aside from the sad events of the Napoleon invasion, this was indeed a fascinating discovery. Here is a brilliant story by Marie Grillot. 🙏💖

Jean-Baptiste Jollois – the Egyptian campaign with an “X.”

via égyptophile

Circular Zodiac of Dendera (Antiquities, t. IV, pl. 21):
drawing by Prosper Jollois and Édouard de Villiers Du Terrage

Jean-Baptiste Prosper Jollois was one of the scholars of the French expeditionary force who left Toulon on May 19, 1798 (30 Floréal, Year VI) for Egypt.
He is only 23 years old, with a great desire to travel and discover other horizons, combined with an “ardent desire” to acquire education, experience and the “intimate conviction that this trip will be useful”.

Endowed with great intelligence, an insatiable curiosity and a well-made mind, he is one of the forty polytechnicians (students, former students and teachers) who participate in the incredible adventure of these “scholars”. It was in Egypt that he obtained his civil engineering diploma.

The Commission of Scientists first settled in Rosette. Jollois takes numerous surveys and drawings of the town and surrounding area. Then the scholars go to Cairo, where everything is ready to welcome them, including the new Institute, created on August 22, 1798.

In March 1799, Jollois was one of the scholars who left with the Desaix Division for Upper Egypt. There is, in particular, his great friend de Villiers du Terrage, Dubois-Aymé, Duchanoy, Descotils, Rozière, Dupuy… Their mission is to collect information on trade, agriculture, and irrigation and raise the profile of the Nile. But they must also carry out a scientific study of the monuments and vestiges of antiquity.

They are often amazed by what they discover: “… We arrived at Denderah, ancient Tentyris, famous for the magnificent temple of Hathor, whose portico still remains with its eight columns, brilliant with colours that time does has not been erased, and surmounted by their strange capitals, formed by the heads of women with heifer’s ears….”

Desaix points out to them “a circular zodiac with, in its middle, hieroglyphic figures and representations of Egyptian divinities”. With Villiers du Terrage, they make drawings on which Castex will base himself to make his marble copy. “The lively interest which Messrs. Jollois and de Villiers had aroused in such a precious monument had prompted them to look for others of the same kind. It is, therefore, to M. Jollois and his collaborator that the world scholar is indebted for the knowledge of these Egyptian planispheres whose historical importance is sufficiently felt through the discussions and research they have brought about. They will write a memoir on ancient astronomical bas-reliefs and the Egyptians’ knowledge of most constellations.

In Thebes, still inseparable, “not hesitating to break their leader’s orders and to run into danger, they set off without escort, multiply the readings, tirelessly measure temples and hypogea”. We owe them a rich and beautiful “General Description of Thebes, containing a detailed exposition of the present state of its ruins, followed by critical research on the history and extent of this first capital of Egypt”. We distinguish in particular that of the “Ozymandias Tomb designated by some travellers under the name of Palace of Memnon, or Memnonium” (the Ramasseum).

They even acted as Egyptologists when they discovered, in August 1799, in the Valley of the Monkeys, the tomb of Amenophis III (WV23).

They go up the Nile as far as Philae, and then, in November, they return to Cairo. Jollois was then transferred to the Delta to inspect the hydraulic works.

Upon his return to France, he was appointed secretary of the “Description of Egypt”. He enriches it with several drawings and memoirs.

His career as a Ponts et Chaussées engineer continued in the Vosges and the Seine department, but in each of his posts, his passion for archaeology led him to carry out research… We can also think that his attraction for antiquities has never been contradicted, nor altered since we find him as president of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of France.

He died on June 24, 1842, and was buried in Paris, in the 12th division of the Montmartre cemetery.

Marie Grillot

Scholars in Egypt, Museum of Natural History, Nathan 1998

A Short Trip to Sicily… (The First Look!)


Or, A Short Trip Towards the Former Godfather State!

I am joking, sorry! No intention of offending anyone. Just traditionally, I want to present some pictures from my latest kidnapping! As I mentioned some weeks ago, we took a trip to spend a week in Sicily for the holidays.
In fact, we have travelled to the south to warm our old (for me definitely) bones, but it was much worse than shivering at home. Well, bad luck! Some kilometres to the right side, it was about 30 degrees in Spain, and we had not more than 14 degrees. The weather was wet, cold, and mostly cloudy.

But what does one do in this case? It’s only to make the best of it; rent a car and run all over the island. It went well so far in the car, but when we got back to our apartment, it was chilly, and as you might know, there was no heating system in our establishment, only the air conditioner. Bei the way, we hadn’t tick cloths with us; WTF?

Anyway, every day, very early in the morning, I tried to catch the sun rising, if I could ever see the clear sky, and could warm my body and take some pics.

Sometimes it was dark, and sometimes it was clear… well!🙄😁

Naturally, my focus was mainly on getting the finest and most beautiful moments of the scenes to take in my camera, or better to say, my Phone. Here are some of them;

Also, in front of our apartment at the beach, there was a nice play of lights in the evening, but sitting outside at that moment was too chilly; therefore, we watched it from behind the window.

Forget domani con questa luna, questo mare e tu con me
Viviamo oggi questo nostro amor…

I will come back for more pictures to share. Thank you, all you lovely friends.🙏💖

The Term of the Collective Unconscious (1936), Part 1


The term Collective Unconscious is an intuitive lesson by Dr Carl Jung, a critical issue in our life to understand the psyche. It is mostly misunderstood by many people, even his faithful Jungian fans, in the way of some sects, or he might talk about some elite groups of exceptional class!
It has nothing to do with any group of people generally but directly with a single person individually. It is a matter of Persona, individual history, and past heritage (Archetype), which we might have totally forgotten, but it has remained in our unconsciousness.

In other words, in the description from the book in German: ( Archetypen) published by dtv. which I chose and translated:
With the model of “archetypes”, C. G. Jung created one of the Keystones of his analytical psychology. Taken from ancient tradition, the term “archetype” refers to the archetypes of human imagination located in the collective unconscious. As a part of the psyche, the archetype is a hypothetical unit of the collective unconscious and manifests itself in images that are not a reflection of biological drives but rather autonomous and not immediately recognizable to humans. Above all, the most elementary human experiences such as birth, marriage, motherhood, separation and death have an archetypal anchoring in the human soul; they have produced similar images at all times and in all cultures and can be regarded as collective human experience. Their range of variation is just as great as their wealth of relationships; to perceive them, to analyze their appearance in images means to perceive the archetypal dimensions in the life of every human being and to use them for the development of the soul. From the numerous writings of C. G. Jung on the archetype, this volume brings together those that most clearly express his ideas on it.

Dr Jung explains:

Probably none of my terms has encountered as much misunderstanding as the idea of the collective unconscious. In the following, I will try to give 1. a definition of the term, 2. a presentation of its importance for psychology, 3. an explanation of the proof method and 4. a few examples.


The collective unconscious is a part of the psyche which can be negatively distinguished from a personal unconscious in that it does not owe its existence to personal experience and is, therefore, not a personal acquisition. While the personal unconscious consists essentially of content that was conscious at one time but has vanished from consciousness, either being forgotten or repressed, the contents of the collective unconscious have never been in consciousness and thus have never been individually acquired but owe it Existence exclusively of heredity.

The notion of the archetype, which is an indispensable correlate to the idea of the collective unconscious, indicates the presence in the psyche of specific ubiquitous or pervasive forms. Mythological research calls them “motives”; in the psychology of primitives, they correspond to Levy-Bruhl’s concept of “representations collectives”, and in the field of comparative religious studies, they were defined by Hubert and Mauss as “categories of imagination”. A long time ago, Adolf Bastian called them “elementary” or “primal thoughts”. From these references, it should be clear enough that my idea of the archetype – literally a pre-existing form – is not exclusively my concept but also recognized and named in other areas of knowledge.

So my thesis is as follows: In contrast to the personal nature of the conscious psyche, there is a second psychic system, of a collective, non-personal character, alongside our consciousness, which in turn is thoroughly personal in nature and which we—even if we consider the personal unconscious as Add appendages – believe to be the only psyche that can be experienced. The collective unconscious does not develop individually but is inherited. It consists of pre-existing forms: the archetypes that can only become conscious secondarily and entice the content of consciousness into a definite form.

To understand it better, I split this into some parts, which may be easier to catch the points. 😉🤗

The image on the top: Surrealism AI Art Spirituality Dark Weird Collective Consciousness Absurdism Illusion Imagination (Ethereal Luna, Pinterest)


On “The concept” of the collective unconscious (1936): Lecture 1936 in the Abernethian Society at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, under the title “The Concept of the Collective Unconscious < published in the journal of that hospital, XLIV, London 1936/37, p .46-49 and 64-66. The first edition of the German translation in Collected Works (CW), Volume 9/1, pp. 55-66.

Nietzsche’s 10 Rules Mastery for Writing with Style.


There is no wonder, for sure, when one meets a genius with a stormy brain like Nietzsche, that he can always be good for a surprise!
He has written about teaching people with his advice; for example, in his book: Ecce Homo, he talks about why he is so smart. And now, we can have even good tips to write which, in my opinion, are very useful. I think he has always tried to validate himself, not only to others but also to himself.

One of the highest points in his life was the encounter with Lou Andreas-Salome. I once wrote an article about this appealing, intelligent, challenging and fascinating woman. Man must be lucky to meet a woman like her; awakening!

In fact, a man’s soul will be prepared by the woman’s; one must be lucky to have the right one: Nietzsche has had his sister and Lou; the duality! The influences show his development in his heritage.

Now let’s read about these ten rules to have the right style in writing.

The life of Russian-born poet, novelist, critic, and first female psychologist Lou Andreas-Salomé has provided fodder for both salacious speculation and intellectual drama in film and on the page for the amount of romantic attention she attracted from European intellectuals like philosopher Paul Rée, poet Ranier Maria Rilke, and Friedrich Nietzsche. Emotionally intense Nietzsche became infatuated with Salomé, proposed marriage, and, when she declined, broke off their relationship in an abrupt Nietzschean fashion.

For her part, Salomé so valued these friendships she made a proposal of her own: that she, Nietzsche and Rée, writes D.A. Barry at 3:AM Magazine, “live together in a celibate household where they might discuss philosophy, literature and art.” The idea scandalized Nietzsche’s sister and social circle and may have contributed to the “passionate criticism” Salomé’s 1894 biographical study, Friedrich Nietzsche: The Man and His Works, received. Barry argues that the “much-maligned” work deserves a reappraisal as “a psychological portrait.”

In Nietzsche, Salomé wrote, we see “sorrowful ailing and triumphal recovery, incandescent intoxication and cool consciousness. One senses here the close entwining of mutual contradictions; one senses the overflowing and voluntary plunge of over-stimulated and tensed energies into chaos, darkness and terror, and then an ascending urge toward the light and most tender moments.” We might see this passage as charged by the remembrance of a friend, with whom she once “climbed Monte Sacro,” she claimed, in 1882, “where he told her of the concept of the Eternal Recurrence ‘in a quiet voice with all the signs of deepest horror.'”

Perhaps primarily, we should see Salomé’s impressions as an effect of Nietzsche’s turbulent prose, reaching its apotheosis in his experimentally philosophical novel, Thus Spake Zarathustra. As a theorist of the embodiment of ideas, of their inextricable relation to the physical and the social, Nietzsche had some concrete ideas about literary style, which he communicated to Salomé in an 1882 note titled “Toward the Teaching of Style.” Before writers began issuing “similar sets of commandments,” writes Maria Popova at Brain Pickings, Nietzsche “set down ten stylistic rules of writing,” which you can find below in their original list form.

1. Of prime necessity is life: a style should live.

2. Style should be suited to the specific person with whom you wish to communicate. (The law of mutual relation.)

3. First, one must determine precisely “what-and-what do I wish to say and present,” before you may write. Writing must be mimicry.

4. Since the writer lacks many of the speaker’s means, he must in general have for his model a very expressive kind of presentation of necessity, the written copy will appear much paler.

5. The richness of life reveals itself through a richness of gestures. One must learn to feel everything — the length and retarding of sentences, interpunctuations, the choice of words, the pausing, the sequence of arguments — like gestures.

6. Be careful with periods! Only those people who also have long duration of breath while speaking are entitled to periods. With most people, the period is a matter of affectation.

7. Style ought to prove that one believes in an idea; not only that one thinks it but also feels it.

8. The more abstract a truth which one wishes to teach, the more one must first entice the senses.

9. Strategy on the part of the good writer of prose consists of choosing his means for stepping close to poetry but never stepping into it.

10. It is not good manners or clever to deprive one’s reader of the most obvious objections. It is very good manners and very clever to leave it to one’s reader alone to pronounce the ultimate quintessence of our wisdom.

As with all such prescriptions, we are free to take or leave these rules as we see fit. But we should not ignore them. While Nietzsche’s perspectivism has been (mis)interpreted as wanton subjectivity, his veneration for antiquity places a high value on formal constraints. His prose, we might say, resides in that tension between Dionysian abandon and Apollonian cool, and his rules address what liberal arts professors once called the Trivium: grammar, rhetoric, and logic: the three supports of moving, expressive, persuasive writing.

Salomé was so impressed with these aphoristic rules that she included them in her biography, remarking, “to examine Nietzsche’s style for causes and conditions means far more than examining the mere form in which his ideas are expressed; rather, it means that we can listen to his inner soundings.” Isn’t this what excellent writing should feel like?

Salomé wrote in her study that “Nietzsche not only mastered language but also transcended its inadequacies.” (As Nietzsche himself commented in 1886, notes Hugo Drochon, he needed to invent “a language of my very own.”) Nietzsche’s bold-yet-disciplined writing found a complement in Salomé’s boldly keen analysis. From her, we can also perhaps glean another principle: “No matter how calumnious the public attacks on her,” writes Barry, “particularly from [his sister] Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche during the Nazi period in Germany, Salomé did not respond to them.”

Coloured “Great” Canyon in Wadi al-Weshwashy in Egypt.


Today I want to present some particular sides (sights) of the magical landscape of Egypt with fascinating colours.

Millions of years ago, the Sinai desert was eventually part of the Red Sea, and nowhere else has the ancient ocean left a more brilliant legacy upon the landscape than at the Colored Canyon near Nuweiba.

Mother Nature seems to have all the beautiful colours we can imagine in her soul to show us all at once. With highly appreciate Marie Grillot for letting us enjoy these magnificent views.

Images: / Discoverbyond / Get Your Guide

“Coloured canyon”: the wadi that makes you see all the colours.

via égyptophile


Superlatives abound. So much so that the wealthiest descriptions of the chromatic circle seem too narrow to translate the emotions unanimously felt: an “impressive beauty”, an “incredible palette of colours, ranging from white to ocher through all the ranges of red and purple”; a “magnificent palette of colours ranging from sandy yellow to pink to blue”; “shades of yellow, purple, red, magenta and gold”; “crystalline colours”, a “velvety appearance”; a “range of hues from dark brown to red to straw yellow”; “amazing layers of colours like pink, purple, silver and gold; gorgeous colours that seem to come out of a fairy tale, so pure and varied”…

The ‘wadi’ is aptly named: “The Colored Canyon” “le “Canyon Coloré”. It is located in the Sinai, between Taba and Nouweiba, not far from the western coast of the Gulf of Aqaba.

With sumptuous layers of colour, this gorge is a labyrinth of limestone rocks reaching up to 60 meters high. A natural geological curiosity, “one of the most beautiful rock formations in the world”, which unfolds over nearly 800 meters in length and proves to the visitor that a canyon “does not have to be green to be beautiful”!


It is up to geologists to explain the why and how of this spectacular natural setting, which recalls the site of the Grand Canyon in Colorado on a minimal scale. The sources we have consulted, likely to provide some light, are content to put forward two successive and complementary causes of a phenomenon dating back millions of years: sedimentation (the Sinai region being submerged by oceanic water), then erosion – by water? Mechanical? Wind turbine? – the mineralized and coloured sandstone having been dug to take these forms, left to the imagination of nature, which arouses our wonder.

“This impressive geological phenomenon, we read on the “Treasures of the World” website, is still unexplained by specialists who are as amazed as tourists by this breathtaking spectacle of lights, which varies according to the inclination of the sun’s rays in the rocky corridor formed by the erosion of the rains.”


Let us, therefore, be guided by an admiring gaze: “Keep an eye for the details, and you will find that your imagination can easily take flight and find human faces or animals on the walls of the cliffs.”

The hike, say the guides, is “easy”, provided you are accompanied. A little exercise is, however, on the menu to overcome certain obstacles, especially when you have to slip under a rock that has come between two very close walls. But it’s “a fun experience, and certainly a memorable one!”

If the specialists in geology remain silent in front of a canyon, which makes them “see all the colours”, for the specialists in tourism, it could not be more explicit: “Coloured Canyon: excursion not to be missed under any pretext. You are engulfed in captivating labyrinths in this magical place where the rocks play with the colours. Beauty, silence and peace await you.” (Jean-Paul Labourdette, Dominique Auzias, Guide du “Petit Futé”)

Marie Grillot

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