The voice of Iranian freedom seekers has finally been heard in the West!

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Thankful for Mahsa’s hair and sacrificed life. 🙏😔

Mahsa, dear. You made us “us” again… your beautiful name set an unrepeatable record in the history of Twitter…
You became the code of freedom that they made a promise with your hair.
via;
شیرین
@Shirinbood
….. #MahsaAmini

It has been a long time since I posted on political issues. I think now is the time! I don’t know how much you have heard about what is happening in Iran nowadays. Although I do hope you did because it is now broadcast on many worldwide networks. Of course, it is a long story: since the Islamic Republic of Iran came into power (at the end of the seventies), the protests for freedom had begun (In my opinion, the revolution had failed before its victory!), as I took part in them, but the highest point was the so-called green wave in 2009; however, it didn’t come on the air in the West as we hoped, only there was a brief statement by President Bush as he said: don’t harm the young Iranian protesters! After that, there was unrest now and then, but still, the West remained silent. (I might mention it before several times (f.e. here & here); it is almost clear for an intellectual these days to know that the free press is under pressure; We all have the orders from above and at least have a “free choice”: to say and write what we think and live isolated, or be decent and care of our future carrier!) And now?!

The death of a young girl named Mahsa Amini exploded an old festering wound. She wasn’t the first one who was brutally grabbed by Islamic police on the streets and tattered in the police cars because of her incorrect hijab; it happened before with the other young girls, but her arrest and death after they hit her head violently, there was no waiting any longer.

Honestly, at the beginning of this year, I had a feeling (a prognosis?) that this Mullah regime would spend its last time because of the western media’s reaction toward the situation in Iran. There were unusually more reports in the press.

On the other hand, the pressure on people got much more violent. It reminded me of how the secret service of the late Shah, SAVAK, did the same increasingly brutality in their last year of reign. Those days Al and I and some other friends were under their observation. I have heard it from one of the members of this organisation. I got to know him from another friend who was interested in spy movies and wanted to be an agent! He told me he knew an agent and would like to talk to us. This Agent was very friendly and told us how he knew and appreciated our father. He was a great thinker, he added, and his children had to be the same. Therefore we watched all your actions and took pictures of when you left the house and where you went! We know you are harmless, but these days we have some new members; ill-minded and brutal! I don’t know why he said; I just warn you to be careful. That convinced me later when I heard many violently dragging and arresting young people from their homes at night. That usually is the way to make displeasure and dissatisfaction in society. Those days I thought it was the end of Shah’s regime, and I was right! Now I’d make the same prophecy! Amen!


Women take part in a sit-in following the death of Mahsa Amini at Martyrs’ Square in Beirut, Lebanon September 21, 2022. REUTERS/Mohamed Azakir
Cyprus Mail

Mahsa Amini just wanted to be free, like many other women in Iran. She was a Kurdish girl, and as I know through my life experience, the Kurdish people are a unique nation. They are challenged for freedom all through their life, especially during the time of Khomeini. Once I remember well that Al wrote an article about their courage and excellent knowledge of living equally between man and woman. (We must bow before the Kurds, he noted.)

My name is Mahsa Amini. My 23rd birthday was two days ago. Instead of celebrating, I was kidnapped, tortured, put in a coma and killed by the government. My crime was that my hair was showing. Now I am dead. Be my voice. #MahsaAmini #مهسا_امینی #IranProtests

Now it is time for hope again. May this dark time end for the Iranian people, and this pure blood spilt by brave youth gets the goal they deserve. Freedom is like a fresh breeze which every human needs to breathe.

https://time.com/6216091/photos-mahsa-amini-world-reactions/

PS: Next week here begins a two-week school holiday, and it clearly means I will be kidnapped again! One week in Formentera, Spain. During that time, I will take a break as I might deserve. Love and Peace and Freedom for you all.

Dream #13 (Part 2)

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Dream symbols of the individuation process; A contribution to the knowledge of the processes of the unconscious manifested in dreams. (1944) GW 7 – GW 13

facilis descensus Averni;
noctes atque dies patet atri ianua Ditis-:
sed revocare gradum superasque evadere ad auras,
hoc opus, hic labor est.
(It’s easy and effortless to climb down in hell’s depths,
Because the dark gate of the grave stands open day and night;
But the return upwards, to heaven’s bright air
Leads on a path of suffering.)

Virgil: Aeneid, Book VI, 126-129

Dante and Virgil Painting by Rafael Flores
Pixels

I begin with the last words from the previous chapter.

Only below is the fiery source of life to be found. (Fig. 10) This “below” is man’s natural history; its causal connection cannot become a lapis or a self.

Fig.10
The “Mercurius Tricephalus” as Anthropos; below: the blindfolded man led by the animal.
(Kelley: Tractatus duo de Lapide philosophorum, 1676.)
Lóže u Zeleného Slunce

I had to note that Dr Jung does not intend to narrate all the dreams (His material consists of over a thousand dreams) but takes examples and the corresponding symbols to explain his thesis on mandalas symbols. As he wrote: The symbols I am dealing with here do not concern the manifold stages and changes of the individuation process but rather those images which refer exclusively and directly to the realization of the new centre. These images belong in a specific category that I call mandala symbolism.

Now let’s read about this dream and its symbol. “Seventh”.

The father calls out, worried: That’s the seventh!

In the migration of many ladders, an event referred to as “the seventh” appears to have occurred (Fig. 13). The seven corresponds to the highest level and would therefore be what is longed for and desired in terms of initiation (Fig. 14). In the sense of the traditional spirit test, however, the “solificatio” is an adventurous, mystical idea that borders on madness, because such nonsense was only thought of earlier, in the dark ages of hazy superstition, whilst the clear, purified world of spirits of our enlightened times is such nebulous things has long since overcome, to the extent that only the mental hospital houses Illuminati of this kind. No wonder the father is anxious, like the hen that hatched duck eggs and is now more distressed by the aquatic tendencies of his offspring. If this interpretation that “the seventh” means the highest level of enlightenment is correct, then the process of integrating the personal unconscious should actually be connected with it in principle. After that, the opening of the collective unconscious would begin, which would sufficiently explain the father’s concern as the representative of the traditional spirit.

After all, the return to the dawn of the unconscious does not mean that one has to completely abandon the precious achievement of the fathers, namely the intellectual differentiation of consciousness. The point is that the human being takes the place of the intellect, not the one that the dreamer imagines, but a more rounded or complete one. This means, however, that all sorts of things have to be included in the scope of the personality, which he still finds embarrassing or even impossible. The father shouting so anxiously, “This is the seventh!” is a psychic component of the dreamer, and its concern is his own. As a result, the interpretation must consider that the “seventh” can mean not only a summit but also something unfavourable. We encounter this motif, for example, in the fairy tale of Tom Thumb and the Cannibal. The “seven” have been the seven planetary gods since ancient times (Fig. 13); they form what the pyramid texts refer to as “paut neteru”, a company of gods (Figs. 15, 16), [Budge “der Gott von Egypt, 1904, Vol. 1 p. 87] referred to as {company of the gods]. Although a company is called the “newcomers”, it often turns out that there are not nine but ten and occasionally more. Therefore, Maspero {Etudes de Mythologie, 1893-1913, vol. 2, p. 245} says that the first and the last of the series, in particular, can be developed or doubled without doing the nine number entry.

(“Neteru means Gods/Goddesses, but to the ancient scientist of Kemet, the teachings of the Netru represented more than the modern concept of Divinities or Spirits. They also represented Cosmic Principles or Laws of the Universe.“)

Fig. 15
The seven planetary gods in Hades. (Mylius: Philosophia Reformata. 1622.)
Seven Metals

Something similar also happened to the classic “paut” of the Greco-Roman or Babylonian gods in the post-classical period, when the gods had withdrawn partly to the distant stars and partly to the metals of the earth’s interior, degraded to demons. It turned out that Hermes Mercurius, as a chthonic god of revelation and as a spirit of Mercury, possessed a dual nature, for which he was regarded as hermaphrodite (Fig. 17). As Mercury is closest to the sun and therefore most closely related to gold. Mercury, however, dissolves the gold and thus extinguishes its sun-like brilliance.

Fig. 17
Mercury in the “egg of the philosophers” (alchemical vessel) stands as “Filius” on the sun and moon, which points to his dual nature. The birds indicate spiritualization; the sun’s scorching rays cause the “homunculus” to mature in the vessel. (Mutus liber, 1702)
Mutus Liber Series coloured

Throughout the Middle Ages, he was, therefore, the enigmatic object of natural-philosophical speculation: soon, he was a servile, generous spirit, a “paredros” (literally: assessor, comrade) or “familiaris”; soon, he was the “Servus” or “Cervus Fugitivus” (the fugitive slave or stag) a sprite driving the alchemist to despair, evasive, deceptive and teasing (cf. the amusing dialogue between the alchemist and Mercury in the Dialogus [Theatrum chemicum, 1613, vol. 4, p. 509 ff.]) whose manifold attributes the devil has in common with him: for example dragon, lion, eagle, raven – to name only the most important ones. In the alchemical series of gods, he is the lowest as “prima materia” and the highest as “lapis philosophorum”. The “Spiritus Mercurialis” (Fig. 16) is the guide (Hermes Psycho pompous) and the seducer of the alchemist; he is his fortune and his undoing. His dual nature enables him to be not only the seventh but also the eighth, namely that eighth in Olympus, “of which no one thought” (Faust; 2nd part).

fig. 16
The mystical vessel in which the two natures unite (Sol and Luna, Caduceus), from which the “Filius Hermaphroditus” of Hermes Psychopompos emerges; on the side, the six planetary gods.
(Figurarum aegyptiorum secretarum…, 18. Century.)
Snakes and nine figures

It may seem odd to the reader that we are bringing in such a remote area as medieval alchemy. However, “black art” is not as far away as we think; as an educated man, the dreamer must have read Faust. But this one is an alchemical drama from start to finish, even if today’s educated person only dimly suspects it. Even though our conscious mind is far from understanding everything, the unconscious remembers the “ancient” oddities to recall when the opportunity arises. Our dreamer felt the same about Faust as this did to young Goethe in Leipzig when he studied Theophrastus Paracelsus with Fraulein von Klettenberg. (Goethe: Poetry and Truth)

There the mysterious quid pro quo of seven and eight was impressed on him without his conscious being able to decipher it – as we may reasonably assume. The following dream will show that the memory of Faust is not far-fetched.

I appreciate your interest. I will try to post more dreams with Dr Jung’s analysis. 🙏💖

Dream Symbols of The Individuation Process The Mandala Symbols.

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“Musica e Amore nell’Hortus Deliciarium di Venere”,
Miniature taken from the codex ‘De Sphaera’ (around 1460), Estense Universitaria Library, Modena.
Folia Magazine

As I go deeper into Carl Jung’s works, I notice that his writings need high concentration. You know, I read them in German, and he writes very voluntarily, maybe because he is swiss! Sometimes I have to compare his style with James Joyce’s; a long paragraph without any points! Nevertheless, I think it is worth it to read them because I can learn a lot about the human soul and here, through its dreams. I have picked up one of the dreams he wrote in his book: dream and dream interpretation (Traum und Traumdeutung) and his analysis related to the concept of Mandalas.

I tried translating it as clearly as possible and put the footnotes in the main text where needed. I hope you enjoy reading. (there is also an excellent opportunity to refresh our Latine! 😉)

Dream 13 (Part 1)

There is a treasure in the sea. You have to dive through a narrow opening. It is dangerous, but one will find a companion below. The dreamer dares to plunge into the darkness and discovers a beautiful, regular garden with a fountain in the middle.

Hidden in the sea of the unconscious is the “hard-to-reach treasure,” which only the brave attain. I conjecture that the jewel is also the “companion”, someone who walks through life alongside and with us – probably the closest analogy to the lonely “I”, for which a “you” is placed in the self; because “self” is initially alien non-ego. This is the motif of the magical companion. I give three famous examples: the disciples on the road to Emmaus, the Bhagavadgita (Bhagavad-gītā) {Krishna and Arjuna} and Sura 18 of the Qur’an (Moses and Chidher.) [Cf. my writing: About rebirth, GW 9/I, §§135 ff.]

Fig. 21
udayton.edu

I further conjecture that the treasure in the sea, the companion, and the garden with the fountain are one and the same thing: the self. The garden is, in turn, the temenos (sanctuary), and the fountain is the source of “living water” that we know from John 7,38, and which Moses of the Koran also sought and found, and with and by this Chidher, an “Our servant whom We had endowed with Our grace and wisdom” (Sura 18). And as the legend goes, the desert floor around Chidher was also blooming with spring flowers. Based on early Christian architecture, the image of the temenos with the spring developed into a mosque courtyard and a ritual wash house in the middle of Islam (e.g. Achmed Ibn Tulun in Cairo). We see something similar in the occidental cloister with the fountain in the garden. This is also the “rose garden of the philosophers”, which we know from the potions of alchemy and was later often depicted in beautiful engravings. “The Dweller in the House” is the “companion”. The centre and the circle, shown here as a fountain and a garden, are analogies of Lapis, which is also, among other things, an animated being (Figs. 20,21).

Hermes lets him speak (in the “Rosarium” ): “Protege me, protegam te. Largire mihi ius meum, ut te adiuvem” (Artis auriferae, 1593, vol. 2, p. 239: “Protect me, and I will protect you. Give me what is due me so that I can help you.” This quote from the “Tractatus” aureus reads according to the edition of 1566 (Ars chemica); Largiri vis mihi meum ut adiuvem te. [You want to give me what is mine so that I can help you.]

Fig. 20
ALCHEMY – ROSARIUM PHILOSOPHORUM – THE FOUNTAIN A much-printed alchemical series, the Rosarium Philosophorum,1550, consists of a complex text of around 20 highly distinctive woodcut prints. The imagery is alchemica but well disguised behind the hieros gamos, sacred marriage, sexuality and various Christian symbols. They each relate to the alchemical stages, viewed from a Christian standpoint – perhaps written in the late 15th century by one of the early Rosicrucian schools. Although the text and related images appeared in mediaeval manuscripts, it was not printed until 1550, in a German edition, as part of the De alchimia opuscula. By that time, it consisted of 20 woodcuts. The authorship has always remained uncertain, though it has been suggested that it was compiled by Arnold of Villanova in the 13th century. Jung has argued, from icon PUBLICATIONxINxGERxSUIxAUTxONLY!
ACHTUNG AUFNAHMEDATUM GESCHÄTZT! UnitedArchives0620691

IMAGO – Images

The lapis is here so much like a good friend and helper who helps you when you help it, which indicates a compensatory relationship. (I recall what was said in the commentary on Dream 10, especially the parallel Monogenes-Lapis-Self.)

The fall to earth leads to the depths of the sea, to the depths of the unconscious, and in this way, the dreamer achieves the protection of the temenos against the split personality in the regression to the infantile. Therefore, the situation is somewhat similar to dreams 4 and 5, where the barrier had to protect against the attraction of the multiplicity of the unconscious. (In much the same way, the dangers of temptation approach Poliphile at the beginning of his Nekyia {Necromancy}.)

Like Chidher, the spring of life is a good companion, but not without doubts, of which, according to the Koran, the old Moses had to taste some embarrassing samples – after all, this spring is the symbol of the constantly renewing life force (Fig. 42; also 20-22, 71), the clock that never runs out. A non-canonical saying of the Lord says: “He who is near me is near the fire.” {A quote from Aristotle in the “Rosarium” (ibid., p. 317) says: “Elige Tibi pro lapide, per quem reges venerantur in Diadematibus suis… quia ille est propinquus igni “[Choose for your stone that by which kings are worshipped in their crowns… for this (stone) is near to the fire.]}

Just as this esoteric Christ is a source of fire (Fig. 43), probably not without reference to the “eternally living fire” (pyr aei zoon) of Heraclitus, so is the “aqua nostra” “ignis” (fire ).86 {See the Komarios text, in which Cleopatra explains the importance of water.} The source is not only the flow of life but also its warmth, yes, its heat, the secret of passion, which always has fire synonyms. < Rosarium (Artis auriferae, 1593, Vol. 2, S. 378): “Lapis nostre hic est ignis ex igne creates et in ignem vertitur, et anima eius in igne morayur.“> {This stone of ours is the fire created from fire and becomes fire, and its soul dwells in the fire.} The template should be; Item lapis Noster, hoc est ignis ampulla, ex inge creatus est, et in eum vertitur {Likewise, our stone, the fire bottle, is made of and returns to fire.} (Allegoria Sapientum, in Bibliotheca chemica, 1702, vol. 1, p. 468a.)

< The “aqua nostra”, which dissolves everything, is an indispensable ingredient in the production of lapis. But the source comes from below, so the path leads down through. Only below is the fiery source of life to be found. This “below” is man’s natural history; its causal connection cannot become a lapis or a self.

I stop here to take a breath (for all of us!) and will continue in the next chapter (including the missing figures). Thanks and have a great weekend.

Carl Jung

Mandalasymbole; (Traumsymble des Individualationsprozess) Cf. my writing: About rebirth, GW 9/I, §§135 ff.

The Eternal Secrets of the XX Dynasty, Setnakht, the Founder, the Sarcophagus of Ramsses III and its Discovery.

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The tomb of Ramsses III is one of the longest in the valley, measuring 180 meters, or 262 feet. The relatively straight axis represented the sun god. It remains one of the most mysterious, fascinating heritage ever in our ancient history.

And the enigmatic find of the artefacts of Ramsses III in the other tomb: of Amenhotep II makes it vaguer.

I present here another exciting, extensive report by Marie Grillot. Brilliant! 🙏💖

via égyptophile

The “Two-Part” Story of the Sarcophagus of Ramses III

left: Lid of the sarcophagus of Ramses III – granite – the New Kingdom – 20th dynasty
The Fitzwilliam Museum Cambridge – E.1.1823 (gift of Giovanni Battista Belzoni – 1823)
museum photo – copyright © The Fitzwilliam Museum
right: Basin of the sarcophagus of Ramses III – granite – the New Kingdom – 20th dynasty
Louvre Museum by acquisition, in 1826, of the Salt Collection
Main number: N 337 – Usage number: D 1 – Anc. coll.: Salt No. 3835
photo © 2005 Louvre Museum / Christian Décamps

His father’s successor, Setnakht, founder of the XX Dynasty, Ramses III, reigned over the Kingdom of the Two Lands for 31 years, from 1186 to 1154 BC. He died, it seems, in his 65th year, following a palace conspiracy.

His mummified body then joins the “Great Necropolis of the Million Years of Pharaoh” in a long funeral procession, where he will be placed in an imposing granite sarcophagus. His eternal home dug in the main wadi will unfortunately not know peace. Profaned in antiquity, it will also be a regular victim of torrential rains…

Plan de la tombe de Ramsès III – Vallée des Roi – KV 11 – source Theban Mapping Project

If its entrance has remained accessible since antiquity, the other rooms will remain buried under the rubble until the 18th century, when the first “modern” explorers entered it… Before deciphering the hieroglyphs made it possible to reassign it to its proper owner, it will also be called “Bruce’s tomb” from the name of one of them, or even “tomb of the harpist” because of a scene which is represented there.

Tombe de Ramsès III – KV 11XXème dynastie

The masterful pink granite sarcophagus of the pharaoh was probably extracted from the “gold hall” around 1815-1816. Who took up the challenge of this manoeuvre?

With its tank 1.80 m high, 3.05 m long and 1.50 m wide, for an estimated weight of 10 tons and its lid weighing 7 tons, Seventeen tons had to be hauled in this stony and rugged environment, then transported to the Nile, still a few kilometres away…

By what historical coincidences was the “unity” of this sarcophagus broken, tank and lid separated forever?

Was he one of the collateral victims of the war that Bernardino Drovetti, consul general of France in Egypt and Henry Salt, British consul, were then waging in a frantic race in the search for antiquities?

left: Henry Salt (Lichfield, UK – 14-6-1780 – Alexandria, Egypt – 30-10-1827)
diplomat, consul of England in Egypt from 1816 to 1835, collector of antiquities
right: Bernardino Drovetti (Barbania January 4, 1776-Turin 1852)
consul of France in Egypt from 1804-1811, then from 1821 to 1829, collector of antiquities

Giovanni Battista Belzoni is also a character who holds a “key” role… As soon as he arrived in Egypt in June 1815, the one who will be called the “Titan of Padua” had approached Bernardino Drovetti, but had entered, the summer next, in the service of Henry Salt, notably clearing the tomb of Ramses III… He also relates that “Mr Salt had a road made from the tombs of the kings to the Nile for the transport of a large sarcophagus, but it was completely destroyed by one of these desert torrents”…

The tank will be integrated into the Salt Collection, which, thanks to Jean-François Champollion, will be acquired by France. Charles X will ratify the purchase “in February 1826, at the asking price of 250,000 francs”.

Jean-François Champollion “Le Jeune”, decipherer of hieroglyphs
Figeac, December 23, 1790 – Paris, March 4, 1832
Portrait painted in 1831 by Léon Cogniet – Louvre Museum – INV 3294

Champollion will then go to Livorno in mid-March to draw up a descriptive inventory of it and then organize its transport to Paris. In a letter dated July 10, he said: “The collection is entirely on board the “Durance”. It has a “full belly”. He will instruct his brother Jacques-Joseph to go to Le Havre to: “supervise the landing, on October 8” (Jean Lacouture). The precious antiquities then continue their journey, by the Seine, to Paris, where Champollion will receive them at the end of November 1826.

Sarcophagus of Ramses III – granite – New Kingdom – 20th Dynasty
Louvre Museum by acquisition, in 1826, of the Salt Collection
Main number: N 337 – Usage number: D 1 – Anc. coll.: Salt No. 3835
photo © Louvre Museum / Maurice and Pierre Chuzeville

The tank of “the imposing pink granite sarcophagus of Ramses III (Salt n° 3835 – N 337) that Belzoni had snatched from Rifaud (*?)” (Jean-Jacques Fiechter) today occupies a masterful place in the Louvre, in the centre of the “crypt of Osiris”. It has “the shape of a royal cartouche which usually contains the king’s name. Here it was the king’s body that lay inside, watched over by the winged goddesses Isis and Nephthys depicted at both ends. The outer and inner walls are decorated with scenes borrowed from the compositions that adorned the walls of the royal tombs: Book of Amduat (or Book of what is in the other world) and Book of Doors” (Egyptian Antiquities: Louvre Museum visitor’s guide)…

Giovanni Battista Belzoni – The “Titan of Padua”
(Padua, 5-11-1778 – Timbuktu, 3-12-1823)
portrait by Jan Adam Kruseman

As for the magnificent lid, it was loaded on the “Dispatch” leaving for London in the autumn of 1821 and then joined the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, where it arrived on March 31, 1823. The museum specifies, “In July 1816, Bernardino Drovetti met Giovanni Belzoni and gave him the granite sarcophagus lid”. He further indicates that “the connection between Giovanni Belzoni and Cambridge is most likely the Reverend George Adam Browne who was associated with Trinity College. The latter was, like Belzoni, a Freemason”.

Sarcophagus Lid of Ramesses III. Find Spot: Thebes, West Bank. Production Place: Egypt. Granite, depth 0.83 m, height 3.05 m, width 1.52 m, weight 7 tons, 1200 B.C. New Kingdom, Nineteenth Dynasty.

Exhibited under the reference E.1.1823, it is presented as follows: “In the centre of the lid is a recumbent figure of the king represented as the god Osiris in the form of a mummy. He wears on his head the crown-atef composed of a mitre flanked by ostrich feathers, a sun disk and a pair of ram’s horns. From his forehead emerges a uraeus, a royal symbol of protection. The king also wears a long braided beard, another divine symbol associated with the god Osiris, and a long wig. The king’s arms are crossed on his chest, and he holds the crozier and the flail in his hands. On either side are the standing figures of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys. Much of the figure of Isis is missing due to a significant break in the lid which extends from the back part of her head to the base. Nephthys stands on the hieroglyphic sign of gold-nbw. Between the depiction of Ramesses III and Isis and Nephthys are probably four serpents, two of which have the bodies and heads of women. These snake-women, who probably represent the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, raise their hands in adoration of the dead king. A hieroglyphic text is inscribed around the outer edge of the lid”.

It is interesting to note that in “The Valley of the Kings” (Kent Weeks ed.), Edwin C. Brock indicates that “fragments of the pharaoh’s sarcophagus were discovered in the K.V. 35 hiding place”… Could this be the missing right part of this lid that the looters had to break to access the mummy, no doubt provided with precious ornaments? The tank is intact; the question deserves to be asked.

Swaddled mummy of Ramses III, painted with a ram-headed falcon spreading its wings and an inscription
photo by Emile Brugsch – Photo credit © Ministry of Culture (France)
Heritage and photography media library, RMN-GP distribution

Concerning precisely the mummy of Ramses III, we know that it did not rest in the tomb of Amenhotep II (K.V. 35) – called the “second royal hiding place” – discovered by Victor Loret in March 1898…

Christian Leblanc gives us some explanations on this subject: “It was in a coffin bearing the name of Ramses III that the mummy of Amenhotep III had been placed in tomb K.V. 35, whereas the mummy of Ramses III was, it, discovered in DB 320. Suppose we can consider the hypothesis that the priests who had probably thought to put Ramses III in K.V. 35 had also placed (placé) the remains of the lid of his granite sarcophagus there. In that case, we can more precisely wonder if our colleague E. C. Brock is not simply alluding not to the remains of a sarcophagus (in stone) but to the wooden coffin which bore the identity of the king. Honesty, it is difficult to see why the priests would have had this fragment of lid transported more particularly to tomb KV35, when the priority was above all for them, in such troubling circumstances, to shelter the remains of the pharaohs. “.

On July 5, 1881, guided by one of the Abd el-Rassoul brothers, Émile Brugsch, Ahmed Effendi Kamal and Tadros Matafian,
delegated by Gaston Maspero, enter the “hiding place of the royal mummies” – DB 320

The DB 320, or “first hiding place of the royal mummies”, found in 1871 in Gournah by the Abd el-Rassoul brothers, will be identified “officially” ten years later by the Antiquities Service. It was then possible to retrace the “peregrinations” of the fifty or so mummies which had been sheltered there from the looters who were rampant at the end of the Ramesside period in the Valley of the Kings. During the 21st dynasty, the high priest Herihor who ruled the Theban region, took the initiative, after the desecration of their eternal residences, to rebury them in the tomb of the princess-queen Inhâpi…

After joining the Museum of Boulaq, that of Giza, and then that of Tahrir, the mummy of Ramses III has been, since April 2021, exhibited at the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization (NMEC) in Fustat…

Marie Grillot

*Jean-Jacques Rifaud was an agent of Bernardino Drovetti

Sources:

Sarcophagus of Ramses III https://collections.louvre.fr/ark:/53355/cl010011413

Granite sarcophagus lid of Ramesses III: E.1.1823 https://data.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/id/object/49037

Rougé, Emmanuel de (viscount), Notice of the monuments exhibited in the Gallery of Egyptian Antiquities, Ground floor room and landing of the south-east staircase at the Louvre Museum, [Egyptian Museum of the Louvre], Paris, Ch. de Mourgues brothers, 1872, p. 173-176, No. 1 https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k56112081/f178.item.texteImage

Ziegler, Christiane; Letellier, Bernadette; Delange, Elisabeth; Pierrat-Bonnefois, Genevieve; Barbotin, Christophe; Étienne, Marc, Egyptian Antiquities: visitor’s guide, 1, [Louvre Museum, Paris], Paris, Editions of the Réunion des musées nationaux, 1997, p. 77-78, ill. p. 78

Giovanni Belzoni, Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Pygmalion, 1979

Jean Lacouture, Champollion, a life of lights, Grasset, 1988

Jean-Jacques Fiechter, The Harvest of the Gods, Julliard, 1994

Kent Weeks, “The Valley of the Kings”, Gründ, 2001

Kent Weeks, Luxor, Tombs, Temples and Museums, White Star Publishers, 2005

Robert Solé, Champollion, self-portraits collection, Perrin, 2012

The Ramesses III (K.V. 11) Publication and Conservation Project https://www.ramesses-iii-project.com/english/the-project/?fbclid=IwAR1r1K-znGq8MZFwUVlEaLhqEbxacBjhqMldjPzQGVKq-vIK2rJbpYEthrg

Theban Mapping Project – K.V. 11 – K.V. 35 https://thebanmappingproject.com/tombs/kv-11-rameses-iii

https://thebanmappingproject.com/index.php/tombs/kv-35-amenhetep-ii

Don Quixote; a Hero or a Clown!

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Spanish Renaissance poet Cervantes’ 400-year-old novel is about truth, fantasy and living it out. This roman is undoubtedly known to almost everyone. I have known it since my youth, have seen it in cinemas and read the novel. Even a few years ago, I heard that Terry Gilliam; had made a movie of this book, though I had no chance to see it yet. (“Don Quixote and Sancho Panza are two sides of our existence.” Gilliam meant once.) Anyway, what made me interested in this roman is that last Friday, we were in the city theatre (Kleine Theater) to watch a modern interpretation of the story. That was my birthday present from my adorable wife.

“We are dreamers and pragmatists”! Someone might sell dreams but Don Quixote lives dreams. Therein lies a fundamental difference. Terry Gilliam. DLK

Don Quixote has devoured too many chivalric romances. That’s why he ends up considering himself a “knight errant”. Fearless, he wants to throw himself into danger, ensure law and order and cover himself with eternal glory.

With his rickety horse Rocinante and his stable master Sancho Panza, Don Quixote sets out to make his idealistic dreams come true. He fights against windmills and attacks a herd of sheep, which he mistakes for an enemy army.

The experienced Sancho Panza patiently explains the difference between reality and imagination, but Don Quixote prefers to be deceived and blinded by magic… (translated from a Piece.)

L’entrée of the Play. https://theater-bielefeld.de/

I asked myself, who is Don Quixote truly? A hero or a clown? We might hate or love him, but I think we have a little of him in us.

How the True World Finally Became a Fable.

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Story of a Mistake!

I’ve often noticed that some people don’t like Nietzsche because they find him sexist, arrogant and very blunt! I don’t think they know him very well. And stunningly, they are mostly men! It’s probably typical; they don’t know anything about him because they haven’t read anything from him. His style may not be easy to understand, but the correct way, from my point of view, is if we want to judge something or someone, we must know enough about them.

He was a genius, for sure, and to understand a genius, man needs some extra crazy view into life; ingenuity needs madness! I have grown up with geniuses, and I know that.

Anyhow, as I read from him more and more, I get to know the thin strings of his heart which now and then have been shaken by the cruelty of the world. Therefore, we might taste his bitterness when reading his works and between the lines.

Here is an excellent example of his philosophical and fanciful point of view about the philosophical world and humanity’s story: The Story of a Mistake!

Translated from his book; Götzen – Dämmerung (Idols – Twilight)

1. The true world, within reach of the wise, the pious, the virtuous – he lives in it, he is it.                   (Oldest form of the idea, relatively clever, simple, convincing. Paraphrasing of the sentence “I, Plato, am the truth.)

2. The true world, unattainable for now but promised to the wise, the pious, the virtuous (to the sinner who repents).                                             (Progress of the idea: It becomes more delicate, more insidious, more incomprehensible – it becomes woman, it becomes Christian…)

3. The true world, unattainable, unprovable, not to promise, but even as thought a consolation, an obligation, an imperative.                       (Basically, the old sun, but through fog and scepticism, the idea has become sublime, pale, Nordic, Königsbergian.)

4. The true world, unreachable? At least unequalled. And as unequalled also unknown. Consequently, neither consoling, redeeming, obliging: what could something unknown oblige us to do?… (Gray morning. First yawn of reason. Cockcrow of positivism.)

5. The “true world” – an idea that is no longer useful, an idea that has become superfluous, consequently a refuted idea: let’s abolish it! (Bright day; breakfast; return of bon sens and cheerfulness; blushing ashamed of Plato; devilish noise of all free spirits.)

6. We abolished the true world: what world was left? The apparent, maybe? … But no! With the true world, we have also abolished the apparent one!
(Noon; a moment of the shortest shadow, end of the longest error; the climax of humanity; INCIPIT ZARATHUSTRA.)

Have a lovely weekend, dear friends. 🙏💖🤗💖🙏

FIFTY + YEARS LONELINESS XII

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The Secret Of Addiction; P 3

This sculpture and a related quote by John Maddox are a window into my life.
“We may look as if we carry on with our lives as before. We may even have times of joy and happiness. Everything may seem ‘normal’. But THIS, ‘Emptiness’ is how we all feel…all the time.”
thefriendshipbench.org

I have sprinkled your altar with my own blood.
I have banished my father and mother so that you can live with me.
I have turned my night into day and went about at midday like a sleepwalker.
I have overthrown all the Gods, broken the laws, eaten the impure.
I have thrown down my sword and dressed in woman’s clothing.
I shattered my firm castle and played like a child in the sand.
I saw warriors form in line of battle, and I destroyed my suit of armour with a hammer.
I planted my field and let the fruit decay.
I made small everything that was great and made everything great that was small.
I exchange my furthest goal for the nearest, and so I am ready.
Jung’s
Red Book – 61 (Liber Secundus)

Although it’s not that easy for me, I would like to end this difficult time of my and Al’s life by telling it; maybe it will help some people who have experienced or are still involved in the same moments.

As I told it in the last part (the first part here), we were immersed in a vacuum and couldn’t get out. The desperation had conquered our hearts, and the only way to save our poor souls was to commit suicide and end this suffering forever! Before I continue, I have to say that we had two so-called rescue routes; One was a whole packet of our leftover heroin with all the trimmings we stashed in the air tubes for someday(?). (that was too much and too good to do without!) and or to choose the other way to take our bag that we had already packed sometime ago and drive to our brother-in-law in Mashhad (ca thousands of Km towards the east.); he was already waiting for our visit. But suicide looked that much easier way.

In such an addicted fellowship as we were, committing suicide is an all-day talk with good tips! One from a good friend of ours, which we’d chosen, was to mix twenty valium tablets in a glass of vodka and cheers; it would be an endless sleep. We had some buttle of vodkas at home, and I have a friend working in a pharmacy at the corner; I could easily get the valiums. I was just worried about it because of my strength! I had a strong foundation, stronger than Al and I didn’t want to stay alive and find myself besideAl’ss dead body. That was like a nightmare for me; therefore, I suggested to Al that we could have another try with our Doc. May he would have another solution for us. Al also wasn’t too keen on our suicide plan either, agreed.

I had met our doctor several times for asking help; he said he did his job and couldn’t do anything more. And you know, he was not so cheap! As I might write once about our situation in Iran, we were not recognized anywhere as Iranian citizens because we had not participated in their ridiculous election to change the regime in Iran. Therefore, we couldn’t take any advance for the insurance. We had to pay for everything, including medicaments and visiting doctors. However, we had to try our best. In our last meeting, he said; the only thing he could do was to write us an unlimited receipt for a medicament named; Captagon. I don’t know if you have ever heard about this, but it worked so magically that after we took just half of one tablet, we felt luckier than we had ever felt! The topic of suicide was as good as gone, and we saw the world with other eyes; much more hopeful! Although I must mention that it’s addictive!

Anyway, we were so fit now to make some new decisions; We thought of travel to our brother’s. Not only because of a change but also because this Captagon was hard to find in Tehran, the capital city. My friend in the pharmacy told me it’s much easier to get it in the province. So we travelled there and stayed for a month or so. It was very nice and helped us to freshen our minds. But we had to get back home, even if we were afraid of it, to be into these walls again. We did get back, and the first days were not so pleasant; this emptiness was very heavy to handle. However, we tried to find a way, and Al was again who found out what: One morning, I saw him with a thick book in his hands, sitting on the couch. It was The Bleak House by Charles Dickens. He was so deep in reading that even didn’t notice my arrival. I thought what a good idea! And went to our bookshelves and looked for a book. The first one which caught my eye was The Idiot by Dostoyevsky. It was somehow strange for me to read a book as I didn’t for a long time. I just took it, sat opposite Al, and began to read. I don’t know how long passed; I just looked up once, and it was dusk.

You might not believe it, but it was a great step. In the following days, we also discovered that we had the music! Honestly, we had very high-quality music player devices, like a gramophone, a reel tape recorder and an excellent amplifier, but they all stood in silence for so long. Therefore, we thought to add them to our reading hours. We had about five hundred vinyl, including two hundred classics; Symphonies, Operas and Violinconcerts. We had let play the latter as we’ve been reading books. I think here I must point out what I ever wanted to say with this story; The main problem for the addicted people is to find a replacement for the stuff. That is a critical issue; unfortunately, most caregivers and doctors suggest that patients find a job to get busy, but it is not what they want; they lack the spirits they tried to find by using drugs. Just being busy does not achieve anything. We were lucky to go in this sensitive way to be free of this dependency; this was the solvation to fulfil our empty souls through arts instead of drugs. The only point is to awaken that sense; the power of creativity.

Here I refer to Dr Jung’s quote on the prognosis of lacking or searching for the spirit, the wholeness:

His craving for alcohol was the equivalent of a low level of the spiritual thirst of our being for wholeness, expressed in medieval language: the union with God.

And he continues:

I am strongly convinced that the evil principle prevailing in this world leads the unrecognized spiritual need into perdition if it is not counteracted either by a real religious insight or by the protective wall of the human community. An ordinary man, not protected by an action from above and isolated in society, cannot resist the power of evil, which is called the Devil very aptly. But the use of such words arouses so many mistakes that one can only keep aloof from them as much as possible.

In the end, we got through all our troubles; we made a daily plan: early in the morning, went out to walk around for about several Km, then ate a little, and after that got home to fulfilling the spirit with arts. After only six months, we had proudly torn the package of the rest heroin we had stored in the windpipe and thrown it in the toilet!
To put it bluntly, it was not our ending with drug consumption; after we escaped from Iran, we used many kinds of drugs (except heroin), though we never got addicted to any. I think that it has all to do with finding the sensitive threads. Love you all, and thanks. 🙏💖🦋🌹🙏💖

Khâ, The Overseer of Works; In The Place of Truth.

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Art: Khâ and His Wife, Meryt Before Osiris (detail) from the Book of the Dead
» Unknown artist, Egypt
Annenberg Learner

In ancient Egypt, the belief in an afterlife led to the development of a complex culture of funerary rituals and practices.

After death, it was believed that the soul would travel through the underworld in search of the Hall of Judgment of Osiris—whose tribunal would determine whether one could achieve immortality as an akh, or transfigured spirit. The journey involved overcoming a variety of perils and obstacles. Books of the Dead, which the Egyptians called Books of Going Forth by Day, were collections of magic spells written on papyrus and enclosed in the burial chambers of tombs. These spells were believed to help guide and protect the deceased on their complicated journey. More here.

Books of the Dead later developed in the New Kingdom, when Egyptians began copying the funerary incantations onto papyrus scrolls, accompanied by illustrations like the one shown above. This particular Book of the Dead was created for a man named Khâ, who served as the overseer of works at Deir el-Medina.

Theban Tomb 8, abbreviated TT8, was the tomb of Khâ, the overseer of works from Deir el-Medina in the mid-18th Dynasty and his wife, Merit. TT8 was one of the most significant archaeological discoveries of ancient Egypt, one of few tombs of nobility to survive intact.

Funerary stele of Kha, now in the Museo Egizio, Turin (Wikipedia)

Museo Egizio

With great thanks to Marie Grillot, we can read a brilliant description of this statuette of Khâ in perfect and sensitive art. 🙏💖

The statuette of Khâ, an essential figure in “the place of Truth, to the west of Thebes.”

via Egyptophile

Statuette of the architect Khâ – Wood – XVIIIth dynasty
From his tomb (TT 8) in Deir el-Medina discovered on February 15, 1906, by Ernesto Schiaparelli
Egyptian Museum of Turin – S. 8335

43 cm high, the statuette of Khâ (head of the royal necropolis under the 18th dynasty) is sculpted in dense wood that the sculptor has polished for a long time, tirelessly, until giving it an impeccably smooth touch. And it is certainly time, the patina of the years, which has “softened” the colour to provide it with this ‘caramel’ hue so warm to the eyes…

Whether by the quality of its craftsmanship, its aesthetic appearance, or the emotion and sensitivity it exudes, this statue is, in all respects, a model of perfection. “Exquisite work of an extremely sensitive artist, this intact statuette, with its modelling rich in vibrations and nuances, perpetuates Khâ in the full vigour of its best years.”

Statuette of the architect Khâ – Wood – XVIIIth dynasty
From his tomb (TT 8) in Deir el-Medina discovered on February 15, 1906, by Ernesto Schiaparelli
Egyptian Museum of Turin – S. 8335

Khâ is standing, left leg forward, arms along the body. His silhouette is indeed slender and youthful: he is represented in his youth before the years affect his appearance. The face with full cheeks, perfectly symmetrical, is expressive and pleasant while serious. The eyes are large, and the mouth, with generous lips, is closed. The black, curly wig, the fruit of patient and delicate work by the sculptor, extends to the shoulders.

Khâ wears a loincloth that one imagines in linen: it encloses his waist and goes down below the knee. On the front, vertically in the centre, is a column of golden hieroglyphs, a sincere prayer imbued with the hope that: “all that reaches the table of offerings of Amon, king of the gods, be for the ka of the Chief of the Great Square, Khâ, just of voice”.

The ka remains, for us, a complex notion. Here is a short excerpt from the definition given by Isabelle Franco: “The ka represents the immaterial double of being… It grows and prospers along with the being. In close connection with food, it is he who benefits from the offerings after death.”

Statuette of the architect Khâ – Wood – XVIIIth dynasty
From his tomb (TT 8) in Deir el-Medina, discovered on February 15, 1906, by Ernesto Schiaparelli
Egyptian Museum of Turin – S. 8335

The emotional pleasure aroused by this statue is tinged with infinite tenderness at the sight of this delicate crown of flowers – now dried – which adorns her shoulders so prettily. Even if only the braiding link remains, even if these flowers have lost their beauty and smell for centuries, they mean much more. They are among the last testimonies of affection or adoration enjoyed by the deceased before his tomb was closed. A second crown has been placed at his feet, on the statue’s base…

If Khâ “is supposed to have been originally a man of modest origin”, it seems that it was thanks to his merit and his abilities that he was able to “rise” to reach the highest functions within the community of artisans of “Set Maât her imenty Ouaset” (“The place of Truth, west of Thebes” the current village of Deir el Medineh).

Deir el-Medina craftsmen’s village – West bank of Luxor

Founded at the beginning of the XVIIIᵉ dynasty under the reign of Thutmose Iᵉʳ, this village – which will be extended and enlarged several times, notably under the reigns of Thutmose III and the first Ramessides – was “a royal institution”.

On February 15, 1906, Ernesto Schiaparelli discovered, in Deir el-Medina,
the inviolate tomb of the architect Khâ and his wife Mérit (TT 8)

The members of the community (architects, scribes, painters, sculptors, quarrymen, simple workers…) who worked on the digging and the decoration of the eternal dwellings of the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, and perhaps even more distant necropolises, lived there, with their families, protected by a high enclosure.

Kha, whose life can be between 1400 to 1350 BC. J.-C. had the honour to work under the reign of three pharaohs of the XVIIIth dynasty: Amenhotep II (1424-1398 av. J.-C.), Thutmose IV (1398-1388 av. J.- C.) and Amenhotep III (1388-1348 BC).

Having become an important character and most certainly influential, Khâ was adorned with the following titles: “‘Hery Set-Aa’, ‘Head of the Grand Place’ (the royal necropolis), ‘Imy-Ra Kat em Set-Aa’, ‘ Superintendent of the works of the Great Square’, ‘Imy-Ra Kat Per-Aa’, ‘Superintendent of the works of the Great House’ (the palace) and ‘Sesh Nisout’, ‘Royal scribe’ “…

There can be no doubt that Kha spent a great deal of time preparing his eternal home: “A tomb of such magnificence must have taken years of preparation, a process that Khâ certainly supervised in person while still in life.”

On February 15, 1906, Ernesto Schiaparelli discovered, in Deir el-Medina,
the inviolate tomb of the architect Khâ and his wife Mérit (TT 8)
we can see the statuette of Khâ placed on the armchair (photo exhibited at the Egyptian Museum in Turin)

The inviolate tomb of Khâ and his dear wife Mérit will be discovered, on February 15, 1906, in the northern circus of the necropolis of Deir el-Medina, by Ernesto Schiaparelli and Francesco Ballerini of the Italian archaeological mission, in the presence of Arthur Edward Pearse Brome Weigall, Chief Inspector of Antiquities, responsible for the protection and management of antiquities in Upper Egypt.

It will turn out to harbour incredible riches and is, most certainly, one of the most beautiful Egyptological discoveries of the very beginning of the 20th century!

Furniture, statues, food, crockery, household linen, instruments and working tools of Khâ, toilet boxes and workbox of Merit…These are more than 500 objects which constitute as many highly instructive testimonies of the life of a couple who had succeeded remarkably well in this ‘microcosm’ that was then the community of artisans.

The inviolate tomb of Khâ and Merit when was discovered on February 15, 1906, by Ernesto Schiaparelli:
We can see the statue of Khâ placed on the armchair
Deir el-Medina (TT 8) – photo by the Egyptian Museum of Turin

It is: “in the centre of the funerary chamber, facing the tables loaded with food offerings and in the middle of the many stools deposited in the tomb that Schiaparelli finds a chair with a back decorated with floral illustrations and inscriptions aimed at guaranteeing the soul of the deceased ‘everything good and pure’ by the intercession of Osiris and furnished with different objects: Leaning against the backrest, one of the two ushabtis of Khâ (mummy statuettes intended to replace him in the chores of the fields of the beyond); in the centre, a wooden statuette with the effigy of the deceased, adorned with a garland around the shoulders and another at the feet.

Khâ’s mummy, which rested in the shelter of three coffins, arrived in a perfect state of preservation, as did his wife, Mérit. “X-ray examinations and CT scans not only revealed that the two bodies had not been eviscerated, but also that magnificent jewels, the materials of which have not yet been identified, were secretly buried in the bandages.”

Khâ “is adorned with a particular necklace called ‘Shebyou’, formed of many discs in the centre of which passes a small cord, which the king used to offer to his most deserving officials as ‘gold of the reward’. He also wears a small chain from which hangs a ‘heart beetle’, a pair of large earrings, four bracelets, two of which are anklets, five rings and two amulets in the shape of an ‘Isis knot’ and a cobra, placed respectively on the chest and the head….”

Khâ joined the kingdom of Osiris more than 3400 years ago, but, by this statuette, he remains eternally young for us, and his name continues to be pronounced…

Marie Grillot

Sources:

Statuetta di Khâ (Museo Egizio) https://collezioni.museoegizio.it/it-IT/material/S_8335/?description=KHA&inventoryNumber=&title=&cgt=&yearFrom=&yearTo=&materials=&provenance=&acquisition=&epoch=&dynasty=&pharaoh=

Museo Egizio, Fondazione Museo delle Antichità Egizie di Torino, Franco Cosimo Panini Editore, 2016
Art Treasures from Museo Egizio, Eleni Vassilika, Allemandi & Co
Guide Museo Egizio, Franco Cosimo Panini editions
The Egyptian Museum Turin, Federico Garolla Editore
Egyptian art at the Turin Museum, Ernest Scamuzzi, Hachette, 1966
Pharaoh’s artists, Deir el Medineh and the Valley of the Kings, Louvre, 2002
Dictionary of Egyptian Mythology, Isabelle Franco, 2013
Who Was Who in Egyptology, Bierbier M.L., London, Egypt Exploration Society
Laboratorio Rosso
Researchers of the past 1798-1945: At the sources of archaeology, Ève Gran-Aymarich
“Archaeologists discover a new mummification technique”
“Turin Museum – The tomb of Kha”
Topographical bibliography of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, reliefs, and paintings I – The Theban necropolis part 1. private tombs by the late Bertha Porter and Rosalind l. b. Moss, b.sc. (oxon.), f.s.a. assisted by Ethel W. Burne – 2nd edition Griffith Institute Ashmolean Museum Oxford
Schiaparelli Excavations. Francesco Ballerini documentary collection. CEFB, Como (Italy).
Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit”.